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grade 8 (english module) - voyages in communication

  • Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

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Page 1: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed

by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or

universities. We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders

to email their feedback, comments, and recommendations to the

Department of Education at [email protected] .

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education

Republic of the Philippines

Page 2: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Have you ever thought of traveling to Africa and Asia? What would you like to

know about our African and Asian neighbors? Like an adventurous explorer, you need to be armed with a map to guide you in your quest for knowledge, a compass to direct you to have a better understanding of the different cultures, and a magnifying lens to highlight your significant discoveries. Your journey in searching for knowledge about Afro-Asian traditions and values will strengthen your identity that will lead you to a better understanding of your being a Filipino and an Asian. In this module, you will discover that oral literature and informative texts reflect the tradition and values of Afro-Asian countries which have an influence on your distinctive characteristics and identity as a Filipino and as an Asian.

Remember to search for the answer to the essential or focus question: How

can you better understand your identity as an Asian through literature?

This module consists of the following lessons: Lesson 1 – Beginning the Knowledge Quest Lesson 2 – Building Up the Knowledge Bank

Lesson 3 – Sharing the Knowledge Learned

Specifically for Module 1, you will learn the following:

Gather facts and opinions about the traditions and values of people from selected Afro-Asian countries.

Discover literature as a means of understanding the traditions and

values of people from selected Afro-Asian countries. Create an informative and creative exhibit showcasing the traditions

and values of people from selected Afro-Asian countries.

Page 3: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

This lesson sets you on a quest for knowledge about the African

experience. You will have a glimpse of Africa’s history and literature. You will

come to understand that there are values, issues, and hopes that Africans and

Filipinos share. In the end, you will exhibit what you have learned in this lesson.

In this lesson, you will learn the following:

1. Identify stress, intonation, and pause as elements of spoken language that

serve as carriers of meaning (Listening Comprehension)

2. Use appropriate stress, intonation, and pausing to suit the message and

audience (Oral Language and Fluency)

3. Use different strategies for coping with unfamiliar words and ideas

(Vocabulary Development)

4. Adjust reading rate based on one’s purpose for reading and the reading

material (Reading Comprehension)

5. Organize information from what has been viewed (Viewing Comprehension)

6. Discover literature as a means of understanding the human being and the

force/s he has to contend with (Literature)

7. Accomplish forms and prepare notices (Writing and Composition)

8. Use non-linear texts and outlines to show relationships between ideas

(Writing and Composition)

9. Use varied adjective complementation (Grammar Awareness and Structure)

10. Gather information using print and/or electronic resources (Study

Strategies)

11. Ask sensible questions based on one’s initiative (Attitude)

12. Express a different opinion without being difficult (Attitude)

13. Write an informative article (Writing and Composition)

Page 4: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

4. Remain polite even if you disagree with what s/he has said. Take note of some

expressions that you may use when disagreeing.

5. Summarize in one semantic web your and your partner’s common thoughts or

ideas about Africa.

6. Then formulate three questions about Africa which you would like to be

7. Be ready to share your work to the class.

Useful Expressions When Disagreeing

Using appropriate expressions when disagreeing with other people helps

develop respect between the speaker and the listener.

Here are some useful expressions when disagreeing:

That’s good, but…

Don't you think it would be better if...

Shouldn't you consider...

I'm sorry to disagree with you, but…

Yes, but don't you think…

I'm afraid I have to disagree because...

I'm not so sure about that because...

- adapted from http://www.xiangtan.co.uk/oralenglishopinions.htm

http://www.vocabulary.cl/Lists/Opinions.htm

Activity 3: DID YOU KNOW THAT?

I KNOW ARE…

As you look at the pictures or watch the video about Africa found in the link

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BgP0xePGl8A, try to search for the answers to

the questions you formulated in the previous activity.

After looking at the pictures or watching the video, answer the following with

your partner:

1. What are the answers to your questions?

2. Were your ideas the same as those shown in the video or pictures? Add in your

semantic web the new information that you learned. Organize the information by

putting similar ideas in one category. An example is given on the next page.

Page 5: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Activity 1: WHAT DO YOU KNOW?

Use the semantic web below to indicate what

you know about Africa. You may use a word or a

Activity 2: AGREE OR DISAGREE?

I KNOW ARE… 1. Find a partner.

2. Using your semantic web as a guide, discuss with him/her your thoughts about

3. Politely ask your partner a question if you want to clarify something or want more

information on what s/he said. When you do so, you may choose from the

expressions below.

Useful Expressions When Asking Questions

I wonder if…

Do you think/believe that…

What do you mean by…

Do you like/dislike…

What do you think of/about…

Would you mind…

Could you… - adapted from http://www.xiangtan.co.uk/oralenglishopinions.htm

Page 6: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Activity 4: WHAT ELSE?

I KNOW ARE… Look at the given semantic web of the major information in the video.

Which among the subtopics would you like to know more about?

Page 7: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Form a group with classmates who are interested in the

same subtopic. As a group, you will research on then write about

it. You may do the following to help you accomplish the work:

PRE-WRITING

Step 1. Generate ideas about your chosen subtopic. (This subtopic will

henceforth be referred to as the topic of your research.)

a. Make a semantic web about your topic. To help you start in listing

ideas, ask questions about your topic. Example:

Activity 5: LET’S WRITE!

b. Present your semantic web to another group. Encourage the members

to ask questions about the things that they would like to know (more)

about your topic.

c. Take note of their questions and include them in your semantic web.

Step 2. Gather the information you need.

a. List down how you could best get the information about your

chosen topic. For example, you may:

Go to the school or municipal library.

Ask a Social Science teacher or any teacher who knows about it.

Interview someone who had visited the place or studied about it.

Page 8: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

b. If you decide to go to

the library, be sure to

write down only the

important information

and not copy every

word in the reference

material. Identify the

things you need to

research on before

going to the library.

You may use the

graphic organizer on

the right to take note of

the important

information you gather

and its source:

What do I want to know?

Ex. Location of the Cradle of Humankind

______________________________________________

What did I learn?

Where did I get the information?

Reference Title: ______________________________

Author/s: ____________________________________

Publication Date:______________________________

Publisher: ___________________________________

Page number/s:

___________________________________ c. If you are going to interview someone, you may use the guide below.

Interviewee’s Complete Name: ___________________________________________

Justification for Choosing Him/Her: _______________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

Date of Interview: ______________________________________________________

Questions I Would Like to Ask Answers

d. Look at all the information that the group members have gathered.

Omit repetitive parts, if any.

Search further for lacking information, if any.

Page 9: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Step 3. Fill in your semantic web with the information you were able to

gather. Your semantic web may now look like this:

Step 4. Present your new semantic web to the same group to whom

you showed your first semantic web. Ask the members if their

questions have been answered. If not, search further for more

information, then add it to your web.

Step 5. Check your web for errors and correct them accordingly.

Page 10: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

I can’t remember now how we got onto the

subject, but one day Teacher said that the palms of the black’s hands were much lighter than the rest of their bodies because only few centuries ago they walked around on all fours, like wild animals, so their palms weren’t exposed to the sun, which made the rest of their bodies darker and darker. I thought of this when Father Cristiano told

us after cathechism that we were absolutely

hopeless, and that even the blacks were better

than us,and he went back to this things about their hands being lighter, and said it

was like that because they always went about their hands folded together, praying in

secret. I thought this was so funny, this thing of the black hands being so lighter, that

you should see me now-I don’t let go of anyone, whoever they are, until they tell me

why they think that the palms of the black’s hands are lighter. Dona Dores, for

instance told me that God made their hands lighter like that so they wouldn’t dirty the

food that they made for their masters, or anything else that they were ordered to do

that had to be kept quite clean. Senhor Antunes, the Coca Cola man, who only

comes to the village now and again when all the cokes in the cantina have been

sold, said to me that everything I had been told was a lot of baloney. Of course I

don’t know if it was really, but he assured me it was. After I said yes, all right, it was

baloney, then he told me what he knew about this things of the black’s hands. It was

like this:-Long ago, many years ago, God, our Lord Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, St.

Peter, many other saints, all the angels were in heaven then, and some of the people

who had died and gone to Heaven- they all had a meeting and decided to make

blacks. Do you know how? They got hold of some clay and pressed it into some

second- hand moulds. And to bake them of the creatures, they took them to

heavenly kilns. Because they were in a hurry and there was no room next to the fire,

they hung them in the chimneys. Smoke, smoke, smoke- and there you have them,

black as coals. And now do you want to know why their hands stayed white?

Because their hands are tied. When he had told me this Senhor Antunes and the

other men who were around us were very pleased and then all burst out laughing.

The Hands of the Blacks

An excerpt from “ We Killed Mangy-Dog”

by Luis Bernardo Honwana

As you read, find out what question about Africans the story

seeks to answer. You may stop reading once you have found the

Page 11: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

That very same day, Senhor Frias called me after Senhor Antunes had gone away,

and told me everything I had heard from them there had been just pack of lies.

Really and truly, what he knew about the black’s hands was right, that God finished

making men and told them to bathe in a lake in heaven. After bathing the people

were nice and white. The blacks, well, they were made very early in the morning, and

at this hour the water in the lake was very cold, so they only wet the palms of their

hands and the soles of their feet before dressing and coming into the world.

But I read in a book that happened to mention it, that the black hands are lighter

like this because they spent their lives bent over, gathering the white cottons of

Virginia and I don’t know where else. Of course, Dona Estifania didn’t agree when I

told her this. According to her, it’s only because their hands became bleached with

all that washing.

Well, I don’t know what to think about all these, but the truth is that no matter

how calloused and cracked they maybe, a black’s hand are always lighter than all

the rest of him. And that’s that! My mother is the only one who must be right about

this question of a black’s hands being lighter than the rest of his body. On the day

that we were talking about it, I was telling her what I know about the question, and

she just couldn’t stop laughing. What I thought was strange was that she didn’t tell

me at once what she thought about all this, and she only answered me when she

was sure that I wouldn’t get tired of bothering her about it. And even then she was

crying and clutching herself around the stomach who had laugh so much that it was

quite unbearable. What she said was more or less this: “ God made Blacks because

they had to be. They had to be, my son. He thought they really had to

be…Afterwards, He regretted having made them because other men laughed at

them and took them off to their homes and put them to serve as slaves or not much

better. But because He couldn’t make them all be white, for those who were used to

seeing blacks would complain, He made it so that the palms would exactly like the

palms of other men. And do you know why that was? Of course, you don’t know, and

it’s not surprising, because many, many people don’t know. Well, listen: It was to

show that what men do is only the work of men…That what men do is done by hands

that are the same- hands of people who, if they had any sense, would know that

before anything else they are men. He must be thinking of this when He made the

hands of the blacks be the same as the hands of those men who thank God they are

After telling me all this, my mother kissed my hands. As I ran off into the yard to

play ball, I thought that I had never seen a person cry so much when nobody had hit

Page 12: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Unfamiliar/ Difficult Word

Strategy Used to Learn its Meaning

Activity 6: HOW?

1. Read again the story “The Hands of the Blacks”.

2. Do the following:

a. Write down all the unfamiliar/difficult words you

b. Find a way to learn what each unfamiliar/difficult

word means.

c. Use the given table on the next page to

summarize your work.

3. Find a partner and exchange ideas about the meaning of each

unfamiliar/difficult word on your list.

4. Share with your partner how you learned the meaning of each one. Did

a. go back to the story and examine how the word was used in context?

b. analyze the word by breaking it down into smaller parts?

c. think of a word that either looks like or sounds like the word whose

meaning you are trying to learn?

d. use a dictionary?

Page 13: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

STRATEGIES TO HELP IMPROVE VOCABULARY

1. Context Clues

Learning the meaning of words from the context of your reading material can be

the most useful strategy to increase your vocabulary comprehension. Using the

context that surrounds an unknown word helps to reveal its meaning.

2. Word Structure

Sometimes a word can give clues to the meaning in its structure. Analyzing the

word’s structure and properties is a vocabulary strategy that you can use to figure

out the word’s meaning. When you approach an unknown word, you can guess at

its meaning by breaking down the parts of the word.

3. Visual-Aural Association

When you use visual-aural association, you think of a word that either looks like

or sounds like the word whose meaning you are trying to learn. Thinking of the

picture of the look-alike word and/or image will help you remember the word and

its meaning.

4. Dictionary

The best way to improve your vocabulary is to carry a pocket dictionary to look

up new words as you encounter them. Or, you can collect a list of new words you

encounter to look up at the end of the day.

- adapted from http://vd-p.d91.k12.id.us/ Curriculum_Resources/Sheltered%

20Instruction%20(SIOP)/Component%202_Building%20Background/Four%

20Vocabulary%20Strategies.pdf.

PROCESS QUESTIONS:

1. Who answered why the black’s hands are lighter than the rest of their bodies?

2. Why do you think each of them gave such an explanation?

Summarize your answers using the given table.

Page 14: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Why the Black’s Hands are Lighter

than the Rest of their Bodies

Teller Explanation Possible Experience/s

with Africans that Led Him/Her

to Give Such Explanation

Fr. Cristiano

Senhor Antunes

Book author

Senhor Frias

Doña Estifania

Narrator’s Mother

A Note on African Literature

African literature is rich in oral traditions. Oral traditions are messages

passed down through speech or song and may take the form of folktales and

fables, epic histories and narrations, proverbs or sayings, and songs. They help

people make sense of the world, teach children and adults about important aspects

of their culture, and guide social and human morals -- giving people a sense of

place and purpose. Oral traditions have a strong influence on modern African literature. The

most successful African writers know what to do with the oral tradition, and

understand how its structures and images can be transformed to a literary mode.

They place their literary works into the forms of the oral tradition. Some of the first African writings to gain attention in the West were slave

narratives, which described vividly the horrors of slavery and the slave trade. As

Africans became literate in their own languages, they often reacted against colonial

repression in their writings. As Africans began demanding their independence,

more African writers were published. They often shared the same themes: the

clash between indigenous and colonial cultures, condemnation of European

suppression, pride in the African past, and hope for the continent's independent

future. - adapted from www.umasd.org/…es/Oral_Traditions_Info-1.pdf www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/8275/African-literature

http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/African+literature

Page 15: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

a. The child was interested to find the reason behind a Black’s light hand.

b. Adults around him were eager to answer his question.

c. He was not afraid of the answers he would get.

d. However, he got amused with the different stories they told.

e. He was glad that his mother explained to him the reason.

f. His mother was right that what men do is done by hands that are the same.

Adjective Complement

An adjective complement is a group of words that follows an

adjective and completes its meaning. Without it, the meaning of the adjective is not

complete, or its sense is different from what it will be if the complement is there.

An adjective complement usually comes in three forms – prepositional

phrase, infinitive phrase, and clause.

- adapted from http://www.englishpractice.com/grammar/adjectives-complementation/

Activity 7: WHAT IS COMMON?

Take note of the bold words and the underlined

groups of words in the following sentences.

1. What is common among the words in bold font?

2. What is common among the underlined words?

3. What is common between the underlined words in a and

b? c and d? e and f?

Activity 8: COMPLEMENT OR NOT?

Work with a partner. If the underlined group of words is an adjective

complement, write YES on the blank before the number. If it is not, write NO and

explain why it is not an adjective complement.

Page 16: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Stanza Adjective Old Component

New Component

and Type New Sentence

1 talented To be the best

(infinitive phrase)

To fulfill dreams

African are

enough to fulfill

their dreams

_____ 1. Racial discrimination is difficult to understand. __________________________________________________________ _____ 2. People should never be happy to see others being oppressed. ____________________________________________________________ _____ 3. Governments should rejoice when citizens fight for their human rights.

____________________________________________________________ _____ 4. Public servants in different parts of the world should work together to promote human dignity.

__________________________________________________________ _____ 5. It is important that future generations of children inherit a more just and

humane world.

__________________________________________________________

Activity 9: WHICH COMPLETES WHAT?

Work with a partner. Identify all adjectives with complements in the given

poem on the next page. Then make new sentences using the same adjectives but

with different complements. The first one has been done as an example.

Page 17: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

I am an African child

Born with a skin the colour of chocolate

Bright, brilliant and articulatea

Strong and bold; I'm gifted

Talented enough to be the best

I am an African child 2

Often the target of pity

My future is not confinedb to charity

Give me the gift of a lifetime;

Give me a dream, a door of opportunity;

I will thrivec

I am an African child 3

Do not hide my fault

show me my wrong

I am like any other;

Teach me to dream

And I will become

I am an African child 4

I am the son, daughter of the soil

Rich in texture and content

Full of potential for a better tomorrow

Teach me discipline,

teach me character,

teach me hard work

Teach me to think like the star within me

I can be extra-ordinary

call me William Kamkwambad

the Inventor;

Give me a library with books

Give me a scrap yard and discardede

electronics

Give me a broken bicycle;

Plus the freedom to be me

And I will build you a wind mill

I am an African child 6

We are the new generation

Not afraid to be us

Uniquely gifted, black and talented

Shining like the stars we are

We are the children of Africa

Making the best of us

Yes! I am an African child

African Child

by Eku McGred from http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/african-child-3/

aarticulate - able to talk easily and effectively about things, especially difficult subjects bbe confined to - to exist in or affect only a particular place or group cthrive - to become very successful or very strong and healthy dWilliam Kawkwamba - a boy with big dreams who built a windmill from junkyard scraps in order to

help feed his village (http://www.williamkamkwamba.typepad.com/) ediscard - to get rid of something

Activity 10: DID I HEAR YOU RIGHT?

1. Take note of your thoughts and feelings as your teacher reads a poem.

2. Find a partner and exchange views with him/her.

3. Take turns in reciting the poem in the way your teacher did.

4. Then take turns describing to each other the experience of being the listener and

the experience of being the reader.

5. Next, explain to each other which you would rather be and why: the reader

reciting the poem in that way or the listener hearing the poem recited in that way?

Page 18: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

The meaning of what is being said may change depending on the stress

the speaker places on a syllable or a word.

Stressed Syllables

A stressed syllable usually combines the following features:

1. It is longer.

2. It is louder

3. It usually has a higher pitch than the syllables coming before and afterwards.

4. It is said more clearly.

5. It uses larger facial movements.

The table below shows patterns in word stress in English, but there are

really NO fixed rules. Exceptions can usually be found.

Word Type of Word Tendency Exceptions

two-syllable

stress on the first syllable

words which can

be used as both

nouns and verbs

the noun has stress on the first

"You are the SUSpect!"

the verb has stress on the

second syllable

"I susPECT you."

football compound nouns

fairly equally balanced but with

stronger stress

on the first part

Basic Elements of Spoken Language

Stress, intonation, and pause are basic elements of spoken language

that serve as carriers of meaning. They may aid or interfere in the delivery of

the message.

Stress is the emphasis placed on a sound, syllable, or word by saying it

relatively more loudly and forcefully.

Intonation refers to the way the pitch of a speaker's voice rises or falls.

Pause is a break, temporary stop, or rest in speaking (or reading) to

emphasize or clarify meaning.

Page 19: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

For long words like polysyllabic and affixed words, it is best to consult a dictionary.

Stressed Words

Generally speaking, a word is stressed if it is a content word (noun, principal/

main verb, adjective, or adverb). A word may also be stressed for the following

1. to emphasize the idea (That was a difficult TEST. - standard statement;

That was a DIFFICULT test. - emphasizes how difficult the test was);

2. to point out the difference between an idea and another (I think I

prefer THIS color. – means that it is a specific color, not any other); or

3. to call attention to new information (When does class begin? -

The class begins at NINE O'CLOCK.)

- adapted from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/print/423

http://esl.about.com/od/speakingadvanced/a/timestress.htm

http://esl.about.com/od/speakingenglish/a/tstress.htm

Activity 11: STRESSED OR NOT?

1. Find a partner.

2. Take turns in reading aloud the given words and sentences.

3. Then take turns telling each other

a. how easy or difficult it is to read/speak properly;

b. how well you think you read/spoke; and

c. how well you think your partner read/spoke.

Note: BOLD AND CAPITALIZED font indicates a stressed syllable or word.

1. diSTINGuish

2. civiliZAtion

3. TOLerance

4. comMUnity

5. phiLOSopher

Page 20: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

1.a. The conception of education and of

what an EDUCATED man is varies in

response to fundamental changes in the

details and aims of society.

1.b. The conception of education and

of what an educated man is varies IN

RESPONSE to fundamental changes

in the details and aims of society.

2.a. In our country and during this

transition stage in our national life, what

are the qualities which an EDUCATED

man should possess?

2.b. In our country and during this

transition stage in our national life,

what are the QUALITIES which an

educated man should possess?

3.a. Great CHANGES have taken place

in the nature of our social life during the

last forty years.

3.b. Great changes have taken place in

the nature of our SOCIAL LIFE during

the last forty years.

4.a.The MEANS OF COMMUNICATION

have improved and therefore better

understanding exists among the different

sections of our country.

4.b. The means of communication

have IMPROVED and therefore better

understanding exists among the

different sections of our country.

5.a. The GROWTH of public schools and

the ESTABLISHMENT of democratic

institutions have developed our national

consciousness both in strength and in

solidarity.

5.b. The growth of PUBLIC schools

and the establishment of

DEMOCRATIC institutions have

developed our national consciousness

both in strength and in solidarity.

Appropriate pausing helps to impart clarity in what you are saying. It can

also be used in such a way that your main points will make a lasting impression.

When to Pause

1. Pause to Punctuate

When you fail to pause when required by punctuation, you make it difficult for

others to understand what you are reading aloud or saying.

2. Pause for Change of Thought

When you are making a transition from one main point to another, a pause

can give your listener/s an opportunity to reflect, to adjust, to recognize the

change in direction, and to grasp more clearly the next thought about to be

3. Pause for Emphasis

A pause for emphasis gives your listener/s the opportunity to reflect on what

has just been said, or it creates anticipation for what is to follow.

4. Pause to Allow for Response

B. Sentences

Page 21: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Allow your listener/s to respond, if not orally, mentally, because

communication is a two-way flow of thoughts.

adapted from http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1102001074

Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest, or

even taking offense.

Reminders/Guidelines 1. Wh questions: falling intonation

2. Yes/No questions: rising intonation

3. Statements: falling intonation

4. Question tags: 'chat' – falling intonation; 'check' – rising intonation

5. Lists: rising, rising, rising, falling intonation

6. New information: falling intonation

7. Shared knowledge: falling-rising intonation

- adapted from http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonation

Activity 12: TO PAUSE OR NOT TO PAUSE? TO RISE OR TO FALL?

2. Take turns in reading aloud the given paragraphs.

a. how well you think you read and why; and

b. how well you think your partner read and why.

/ denotes a short break/pause in speech in the middle of a sentence

// denotes a longer break/pause in speech at the end of a sentence

CAPITAL LETTERS denote a stressed word

With this growth in national consciousness/ and national spirit among our people,/

we witness the corresponding rise of a new conception of education/– the training of

the individual for the duties and privileges of citizenship,/ NOT ONLY for his own

happiness and efficiency/ BUT ALSO for national service and welfare.// In the OLD

DAYS,/ education was a matter of PRIVATE concern;/ NOW it is a PUBLIC

function,/ and the state NOT ONLY has the DUTY/ BUT it has the RIGHT as well to

educate every member of the community/ – the OLD as well as the YOUNG,/

WOMEN as well as MEN/ – NOT ONLY for the good of the INDIVIDUAL/ BUT

ALSO for the self-preservation and protection of the STATE itself.// Our modern

public school system has been established/ as a safeguard against the

shortcomings and dangers/ of a democratic government and democratic

institutions.//

Page 22: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

the individual FOR the DUTIES and PRIVILEGES of citizenship,/ not only for his

own happiness and efficiency/ but also FOR national SERVICE and WELFARE.// In

the old days,/ education was a matter of private concern;/ now it is a public

function,/ and the state not only has the duty/ but it has the right as well to educate

every member of the community/ – the old as well as the young,/ women as well as

men/ – not only for the good of the individual/ but also FOR the SELF-

PRESERVATION and PROTECTION of the State itself.// Our modern public school

system has been established as a safeguard against the shortcomings and dangers

of a democratic government and democratic institutions.//

In the light of social changes,/ we come again to the question:/ What qualities

should DISTINGUISH the educated Filipino of today?// I venture to suggest/ that the

educated Filipino should first be distinguished by the POWER TO DO.// The

Oriental excels in reflective thinking;/ he is a philosopher.// The Occidental is the

doer;/ he MANAGES things,/ men and affairs.// The Filipino of today needs more of

his power to TRANSLATE reflection into action.// I believe that we are coming more

and more to the conviction/ that no Filipino has the right to be considered educated/

unless he is prepared and ready to TAKE an active and useful PART in the work,/

life,/ and progress of our country/ as well as in the progress of the world.//

should distinguish the educated Filipino of today?// I venture to suggest/ that the

educated Filipino should first be distinguished by the power to do.// The Oriental

excels in reflective thinking;/ he is a PHILOSOPHER.// The Occidental is the

DOER;/ he manages things,/ men and affairs.// The Filipino of today needs more of

his power to translate REFLECTION into ACTION.// I believe that we are coming

more and more to the conviction/ that no Filipino has the right to be considered

educated/ unless he is prepared and ready to take an active and useful part in the

work,/ life,/ and progress of our country/ as well as in the progress of the world.//

The next reading selection as written by Francisco F. Benitez. He was the

first dean of the School of Education of the University of the Philippines (UP). This

essay was an excerpt from an address he gave before a General Assembly in UP

in 1923. As you read the selection, practice the use of the right stress, intonation,

Page 23: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

What is an Educated Filipino?

by Francisco Benitez

( An Excerpt)

Great changes have taken place in the nature of our social life during the last

forty years. The contact with the Americans and their civilization has modified many

of our old customs, traditions and practices, some for the worse and many for the

better. The means of communication have improved and therefore better

understanding exists among the different sections of our country. Religious freedom

has developed religious tolerance in our people. The growth of public schools and

establishment of democratic institutions have developed our national consciousness

both in strength and in solidarity. With this growth in national consciousness and

national spirit among our people, we witness the corresponding rise of a new

conception in education- the training of an individual for the duties and privileges of

citizenship, not only for his own happiness and efficiency but also for national

service and welfare. In the old days, education was a matter of private concern; now

it is a public function, and the State not only has the duty but it has the right as well

to educate every member of the community- the old as well as the young, women as

well as men- not only for the good of the individual but also for the self –preservation

and self protection of the State itself. Our modern public school system has been

established as a safeguard against the shortcomings and dangers of the democratic

government and democratic institutions.

In the light of the social changes, we come again to the question: What qualities

should distinguish the educated Filipino today? I venture to suggest that the

educated Filipino should, first, be distinguished by the power to DO. The Oriental

excels in reflective thinking; he is a philosopher. The Occidental is a doer; he

manages things, men and affairs. The Filipino of today needs more of his power to

translate reflection into action. I believe that we are coming more and more to the

conviction that no Filipino has the right to be considered educated unless he is

prepared and ready to take an active and useful part of the work, life , and progress

of our country as well as in the progress of the world.”

What is an educated Filipino

and what qualities should

distinguish him today?

The conception of education and of what an educated man is varies in

response to fundamental changes in the details and aims of society. In our country

and during this transition stage in our national life, what are the qualities which an

Page 24: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

“What is an educated Filipino”

“African Child”

state of the nation then

state of the nation now

concept of education

image of an educated person

vision of the future

Read again the essay “What is an educated Filipino?”

and the poem “African Child”.

Identify the similarities and differences of the two

selections in terms of the following:

a. state of the nation then,

b. state of the nation now,

c. concept of education,

d. image of an educated person,

e. vision of the future, and

f. speaker.

Summarize your work in the form of a table. Be

ready to present your work to the class.

Activity 13: CAN YOU SAY IT? CAN YOU HEAR IT?

1. Form a group of 5-6 members.

2. Practice reading the poem “African Child” with proper stress, intonation, and

3. Use the following as a guide. Be ready to present in front of the class.

- indicates a short pause in between speech - indicates a longer pause in between speech WORD - indicates a stressed syllable or word; intonation rises in these syllables or words

Page 25: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

I am an AFrican child

Born with a SKIN the colour of CHOColate

BRIGHT, BRILliant and arTIculate

Strong and BOLD; I'm GIFted

Talented enough to be the BEST

I am an AFrican child /

Often the target of PIty

My future is not confined to CHArity

Give me the gift of a LIFEtime;

Give me a DREAM, a door of opporTUnity;

I will THRIVE

Do not hide my FAULT

show me my WRONG

I am like any OTHER;

Teach me to DREAM

And I will beCOME

I am the SON, DAUGHter of the soil

Rich in texture and CONtent

Full of potential for a better toMORrow

Teach me DIScipline, teach me CHAracter, teach me HARD work

Teach me to THINK like the STAR within me

Page 26: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

I can be extra-ORdinary

call me William KamKWAMba the InVENtor;

Give me a LIbrary with books

Give me a SCRAP yard and diSCARDed electronics

Give me a BROken bicycle;

Plus the FREEdom to be me

And I will build you a WIND mill

We are the new geneRAtion

Not aFRAID to be us

Uniquely GIFted, BLACK and TALented

Shining like the STARS we are

We are the CHILdren of Africa

Making the BEST of us

YES! I am an AFrican child /

ACTIVITY 14: WHAT’S NEXT?

1. Go back to your group in Activity 4.

2. Study the semantic web of your chosen topic about Africa.

3. Using it as a guide, start writing your informative article.

Turn your semantic web into paragraph form. (See the example in

Activity 4 for reference.)

a. Make a sentence using the information in the center. This is your

Main idea: Africa is the cradle of the humankind.

Page 27: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

b. Decide on the order of the subtopics and write a sentence about each one.

These sentences support your main idea.

Supporting ideas:

In Africa’s Transvaal Sea, primitive unicellular cyanobacteria combined

with calcium and oxygen to form dolomite rocks.

Africa is the cradle of humankind because it tells about early human

It also tells about earth conditions when early human beings lived.

The caves where the fossils were found were declared a UNESCO World

Heritage site.

c. Use the details to tell more about the supporting ideas.

Supporting idea: In Africa’s Transvaal Sea, primitive unicellular cyanobacteria

combined with calcium and oxygen to form dolomite rocks.

Details: The dolomite rock was pushed to the bottom of the sea. The rock

contains fossils of animals and plants.

Put together the main idea, supporting ideas, and details to make one

paragraph. This is the first draft.

First Draft

Africa is called the cradle of humankind. This is because in Transvaal’s Sea,

primitive bacteria combined with calcium and oxygen to form dolomite rock

millions of years ago. The dolomite rock was pushed to the bottom of the sea.

The rock contains fossils of animals and plants. The fossils tell about the life of

early human beings. The preserved bones of human beings were discovered.

The tools of human beings were also discovered. Based on evidences

discovered, early humans also used fire. The dolomite layers also tell about the

condition during that time, for example, whether there was famine due to dry

season. The bones of the animals discovered also tell about the earth conditions.

Now, the caves are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Sterfontein Caves and

Wonder Caves are some of the caves that could be visited.

Page 28: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Reread and improve the first draft. The following questions could be used in

improving the draft:

a. Is the main idea clear?

b. Do all the sentences relate to the topic?

c. Do all the sentences clearly state your meaning?

d. Does the introduction hook your readers?

e. Does your last statement tie up with your main idea?

f. Does your work help your readers form a clear picture of the topic?

g. Do transition words help in establishing relationships between sentences?

h. Is the order of the sentences the best possible one?

i. i. Is it free of spelling, punctuation and grammatical errors?

The revised draft could look like this now.

Revised Draft

Africa is the cradle of humankind because this is where traces of early human

life were discovered. Millions of years ago, in a shallow sea in Africa, whirling and

swirling single-cell bacteria dwelt. As the sea dried up, the simple cyanobacteria

combined with calcium and oxygen to form a layer of dolomite rocks. As the dolomite

layers were slowly dissolved in water, they were pushed down and became caves.

Animal bones and other remains fell in these caves and were preserved in the

dolomite rocks. When the fossils were discovered, the skull of an early human being

was among them. Later on, more human bones and tools used by them were found.

There were also evidences that our ancestors used fire. Based on the animal fossils,

the dolomite layers could also tell about the condition during that time, like for

example, if there was famine due to dry season. The Sterfontein Caves and Wonder

Caves are some of the caves that could be visited now. The place where these caves

are located has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site as it shows how

human beings started there.

Examples of revisions done

Main Idea: Africa is called the cradle of humankind.

Revised: Africa is the cradle of humankind because this is where traces of

early human life were discovered.

Reason/s: Explanation why Africa is considered the cradle of humankind was

added. “Termed” was dropped to provide a stronger image of Africa

as the birthplace of the human race.

Page 29: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Supporting detail: The dolomite rock was pushed to the bottom of the sea.

Revised: As the dolomite layers were slowly dissolved in water, they were

pushed down and became caves.

Reason/s: The revised sentence provides a cleaner explanation of what

happened to the dolomite rocks.

a. Revise your work until you think it could be well understood by your readers.

b. You may have another group read and critique your work. Give them the

questions provided earlier as their guide when they give their comments.

Improve your work based on the comments given.

Publishing means that you need to present your work to an audience.

1. Together with your classmates, prepare to exhibit your work.

2. Form several committees that would take care of the things that you need to

display your work. Prepare also all the necessary forms and notices for your

SUGGESTED COMMITTEES

Program Committee: is in-charge of the short activity before the opening of

the exhibit.

Physical Set-up Committee: prepares the venue and exhibit display.

Be sure to reserve the venue by filling out the forms required by the

school when holding such events. On the next page is a sample.

ACTIVITY 15: READY?

Page 30: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

NAME OF SCHOOL School Address

REQUEST TO USE SCHOOL FACILITY

Grade Level: Section:

Date Facility Will Be Used: ______________________

Start Time:

Facility Requested:

Purpose of Use:

Other Request:

______ chairs ______ small table ______ big table ______ rostrum ______ microphone ______ national flag ______ school flag Others

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Teacher-in-Charge ___________________________________ Signature of Teacher-in-Charge _________________________

All requests must be submitted a minimum of ten (10) working days prior to the use

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY

Approved ____ Declined _____ Charge _____ No Charge _____ Date _____

__________________________________ Signature of Person In-charge of Facility Use

Request to Use School Facility

Page 31: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

REQUEST TO BORROW SCHOOL MATERIALS

School Materials:

______ bulletin boards ______ small table ______ big table ______ microphone ______ national flag ______ school flag ______ cover table

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Teacher-in-Charge _______________________________________________ Signature of Teacher-in-Charge _____________________________________

Another form you may need to fill out is the Request to Borrow School Materials.

Page 32: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

c. Promotions Committee: prepares the posters, announcements, and

flyers. The group can also request the school to use the public

announcement system to promote the exhibit. This is a sample guide in

making your poster.

Sometimes, before being able to promote your activity, the school

requires the student/s to submit a sample poster together with an

approval form.

On the next page is a sample form you may be asked to fill out.

Page 33: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Croghan, Richard V. (1975) The Development of Philippine Literature in English

(since 1900). What Is An Educated Filipino by Francisco Benitez an excerpt.

Phoenix Publishing House. Quezon City.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LHV2FebL4YU

http://www.xiangtan.co.uk/oralenglishopinions.htm

http://vd-p.d91.k12.id.us/ Curriculum_Resources/Sheltered% 20Instruction%20

(SIOP)/ Component%202_Building%20Background/Four%

http://www.umasd.org/…es/Oral_Traditions_Info-1.pdf

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/8275/African-literature

http://www.englishpractice.com/grammar/adjectives-complementation/

http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/african-child-3/

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/STRESS

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/knowledge-database/intonation

http://www.definitions.net/definition/pause

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/print/423

http://wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1102001074

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/intonation

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/specials/1624_story_of_africa/page88.shtml

http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index.shtml

http://www.uncoversouthafrica.com/gauteng/attractions/joburg/cradle-of-

http://www.gauteng.net/cradleofhumankind/discover/how_fossils_are_formed/dolo

mite_holding_the_secrets_to_our_past/

Page 35: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Directions:

1. Select any lines from the selection “The Hands of the Blacks”. The lines must

contain word or words which you have encountered for the first time.

2. List down the words; find a dictionary or a thesaurus and look for different

meanings/synonyms of these words.

3. Choose two extremes among the synonyms. These will become the boundaries

of the cline. When done, place the remaining words in between these

boundaries.

4. Write these words on a set of cards. Use recycled materials such as old

calendars, shoe boxes and the likes.

5. Exchange cards with your classmates; list down their own words until you have

a rich copy of clines.

6. If internet is accessible, upload your compilation - that’s what we call e-portfolio of

vocabulary. If not, you can improvise your own portfolio using recyclable

ACTIVITY 11: GRAMMAR TOPICS

ADJECTIVES AND TYPES OF ADJECTIVES

An adjective is defined as a word used to modify a noun or pronoun.

It limits or qualifies nouns or pronouns by telling what kind, which one, how many or

how much. Adjectives allow writers to describe color, tastes, shapes, sizes, and a

multitude of other qualities; they can add important details to a sentence.

Let us start by doing this activity. Encircle the correct picture that matches the

given descriptive word in each item below.

Page 36: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

You are now aware that there are more to discover about Asian

traditions and values.

In this lesson, you will build up your knowledge bank further with

the rich and varied ancient traditions of the Chinese and Japanese.

Through this, you are expected to answer the question, “How can I

better understand my identity as a Filipino and as an Asian?”

Your answer will hopefully create in you a sense of pride and

camaraderie with your fellow Asians. You are now ready to embark on

the second phase of your search for knowledge. Have fun while

In this lesson, you will be able to do the following:

1. Identify changes in the meaning of a spoken message due to changes in

stress, intonation, and pauses (Oral Language and Fluency)

2. Express feelings and attitudes by listening to variations in stress, tone,

and tempo (Listening Comprehension)

3. Guess meanings of words or expressions by noting keywords in

expressions, context clues, collocations, clusters, etc. (Vocabulary

Development)

4. Scan rapidly for connecting words or expressions that signal sequence in

the organization of a text (Reading Comprehension)

5. Demonstrate a heightened sensitivity to the needs of others as illustrated

in a literary text (Literary Appreciation)

6. Narrate events logically (Reading Comprehension)

7. Write informative articles that relate to culture and values (Writing and

Composition)

8. Formulate correct conditional statements (Grammar Structure and

9. Gather data using general references (Study Skills)

10. Express a different opinion without being difficult (Attitude)

11. Prepare a travel brochure on the traditions and values of China, Japan

and the Philippines (Writing and Composition)

Page 38: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

For you to accomplish the tasks and perform well in the activities in this lesson,

complete the statement below to express your own goals, targets, or expectations in

the box provided below.

In this lesson, I hope to _________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

_____________________

Let’s begin this lesson by studying the photos below. The photos

show the different traditions and values of selected countries in Asia

and Africa. As you start working on this task, think about this question,

“How can you understand better your identity as an Asian?”

Families all over the world celebrate important events that preserve

the history and traditions of their countries. Most of these are handed

down from one generation to the next.

On the upper row are photos of Asian/African families and on the lower row are

some traditions/festivals celebrated in Asia and Africa. Match the family with the

festival/s they celebrate by writing the number of the festival on the space provided

Activity 1: LET’S CELEBRATE!

A_______ B_______ C_______

Page 39: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Before the Lesson

Statements Response

After the Lesson

Japan, Philippines, China

have many examples

of oral literature.

China has different

folktales that feature their

religious beliefs.

Only Asian countries

have wedding traditions.

Love for family is often

the theme of Japan’s

oral literature.

For Asians, shame and

honor go far beyond the

individual; and reflect

directly upon ones’ family,

1. What country does each family represent? How do you know?

2. Is one festival exclusive to only one family? Why do you say so?

3. Do Asian-African families share similar characteristics? Why do you think so?

4. Which of these characteristics are also commonly observed among Filipino

5. What may be said about the identity of Filipinos as Asians based on the

answers to the previous question?

Anticipation-Reaction Guide (ARG)

Read the set of statements found in the center column in the table

below. Respond to each statement by writing:

Agree if you agree with the given statements or

Disagree if you disagree with the statements

Fill out only the left column “Response before the lesson” in your notebook. The

right column, “Response after the lesson” will be answered at the end of the lesson.

Activity 2: ARG TIME!

Page 40: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

nation, or other group, and

so is taken

very seriously.

Philippines, China, and

Japan have traditions that

are influenced by religion.

Kimono, geisha, sumo, and

samurai are parts of

Chinese traditions.

Philippines, China and

Japan have rice and tofu

as staple food.

Japanese write haikus

to honor nature.

Hard work is one of the

outstanding qualities of

Chinese and Japanese.

Japan have three common

qualities: love for the family,

religiosity, and value for

You have just tried giving your initial answers or ideas about the

traditions and values of selected Asian countries. Find out whether your

assumptions about them are valid by doing the next set of activities.

What you will learn in the next set of activities will also enable you to

do the lesson project which involves preparing a two-page informative

brochure about the traditions and values of our country and our Asian

neighbors particularly China and Japan.

You are now in the second phase of your journey.

Your goal in this section is to learn and understand key

concepts related to common key values among Asians

and Africans. As you go through this part, keep on

thinking about the question, “How can I understand

better my identity as an Asian?”

Page 41: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

This time, be ready to read the folktale “Soul of the Great Bell”

from China. Go over the following terms or expressions taken from

the text. Read them to yourself and figure out the meaning of each

italicized word using context clues. Put a check mark in the circle of

your chosen answer.

In the Tower of the Great Bell: now the (1) mallet is lifted to (2) smite the lips

of the metal monster—the vast lips inscribed with Buddhist texts.

Activity 3: VOCABULARY BUILDING

(1) A mallet is _______ a hammer an axe a saw

(2) To smite is to _____ hit touch caress

All the little dragons on the high-tilted eaves of the green roofs (3) shiver to the

tips of their gilded tails under that deep wave of sound. The underlined word means

fall on one’s knees

tremble at the loud sound

be destroyed by the gilded tails

All the green-and-gold tiles of the temple are vibrating; the wooden goldfish

above them are (4) writhing against the sky. The underlined word means _______.

twisting pointing leading

Therefore, the worthy mandarin Kouan-Yu assembled the master-molders and

the renowned bell smiths of the empire, and all men of great repute and (5) cunning

in (6) foundry work.

cunning means _______ innocent expert skillful

foundry means _______ market factory garden

act, process, art of casting metals act, process, art of painting metals

rekindled means _____ lighted again set on fire again stopped the fire

toilsomely means _____ with difficulty lightly unmindfully

(9) Gold and brass will never meet in wedlock, silver, and iron never will

embrace, until the flesh of a maiden be melted in the crucible; until the blood of a

virgin be mixed with the metals in their fusion.” What does this mean?

The blood of a virgin maiden is made up of gold, brass, silver, and iron.

Gold, brass, silver, and iron will fuse when mixed with the blood of a virgin

Gold, brass, silver, and iron will never be fused together by a virgin maiden.

And even as she cried, she (10) leaped into the white flood of metal.

Leaped means to _____ squat jump run

Therefore, the molds had to be once more prepared, and the fires (7) rekindled,

and the metal remelted, and all the work tediously and (8) toilsomely repeated.

Page 42: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

(11) And still, between each mighty stroke there is a long low moaning heard;

and ever the moaning ends with a sound of sobbing and of complaining, as

though a weeping woman should murmur, “Hiai!” Which words are closely related

in the statement? between, low, end, stroke, ever

stroke, long, low, murmur, sound

moaning, sobbing, complaining, weeping, murmuring

Here now is a folktale from China retold in English by Lafcadio Hearn

(1850-1904). Hearn was an American journalist whose parents were Irish

and Greek. He spent the latter part of his life in Japan later marrying a

Japanese girl. His interest in oriental culture inspired him to write the

English version of well-loved Chinese and Japanese folktales. When he

became a Japanese citizen, he took the name Yakumo Kaizumi.

As you read, identify Chinese values and traditions reflected in this

The Soul of the Great Bell

by Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904) The water-clock marks the hour in the Tachungsz’, in the Tower of the Great

Bell: now the mallet is lifted to smite the lips of the metal monster—the vast lips

inscribed with Buddhist texts from the sacred Fa-hwa-King, from the chapters of the

holy Ling-yen-King! Hear the great bell responding!—how mighty her voice, though

tongue less! KO-NGAI!

All the little dragons on the high-tilted eaves of the green roofs shiver to the tips

of their gilded tails under that deep wave of sound; all the porcelain gargoyles

tremble on their carven perches; all the hundred little bells of the pagodas quiver

with desire to speak. KO-NGAI—all the green-and-gold tiles of the temple are

vibrating; the wooden goldfish above them are writhing against the sky; the uplifted

finger of Fo shakes high over the heads of the worshippers through the blue fog of

incense! KO-NGAI!—what a thunder tone was that!

All the lacquered goblins on the palace cornices wriggle their fire-coloured

tongues! And after each huge shock, how wondrous the multiple echo and the great

golden moan, and, at last, the sudden sibilant sobbing in the ears when the

immense tone faints away in broken whispers of silver, as though a woman should

whisper, “Hiai!” Even so the great bell hath sounded every day for well-nigh five

hundred years—Ko-Ngai: first with stupendous clang, then with immeasurable

moan of gold, then with silver murmuring of “Hiai!” And there is not a child in all the

many-coloured ways of the old Chinese city who does not know the story of the

great bell, who cannot tell you why the great bell says Ko-Ngai and Hiai! Now this is

the story of the great bell in the Tachungsz’, as the same is related in the Pe-Hiao-

Tou-Choue, written by the learned Yu-Pao-Tchen, of the City of Kwang-tchau-fu.

Page 43: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Nearly five hundred years ago the

Celestially August, the Son of Heaven,

Yong-Lo, of the “Illustrious” or Ming

dynasty, commanded the worthy official

Kouan-Yu that he should have a bell made

of such size that the sound thereof might

be heard for one hundred li. And he further

ordained that the voice of the bell should be

strengthened with brass, and deepened with gold, and sweetened with silver; and

that the face and the great lips of it should be graven with blessed sayings from the

sacred books, and that it should be suspended in the centre of the imperial capital to

sound through all the many-coloured ways of the City of Pe-King.

Therefore the worthy mandarin Kouan-Yu assembled the master-moulders and

the renowned bell smiths of the empire, and all men of great repute and cunning in

foundry work; and they measured the materials for the alloy, and treated them

skillfully, and prepared the moulds, the fires, the instruments, and the monstrous

melting-pot for fusing the metal. And they laboured exceedingly, like giants

neglecting only rest and sleep and the comforts of life; toiling both night and day in

obedience to Kouan-Yu, and striving in all things to do the behest of the Son of

But when the metal had been cast, and the earthen mould separated from the

glowing casting, it was discovered that, despite their great labour and ceaseless

care, the result was void of worth; for the metals had rebelled one against the

other—the gold had scorned alliance with the brass, the silver would not mingle with

the molten iron. Therefore the moulds had to be once more prepared, and the fires

rekindled, and the metal remelted, and all the work tediously and toilsomely

repeated. The Son of Heaven heard and was angry, but spoke nothing.

A second time the bell was cast, and the result was even worse. Still the metals

obstinately refused to blend one with the other; and there was no uniformity in the

bell, and the sides of it were cracked and

fissured, and the lips of it were slagged and

split asunder; so that all the labour had to be

repeated even a third time, to the great

dismay of Kouan-Yu. And when the Son of

Heaven heard these things, he was angrier

than before; and sent his messenger to

Kouan-Yu with a letter, written upon lemon-

coloured silk and sealed with the seal of the

dragon, containing these words:

Page 44: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

“From the Mighty Young-Lo, the Sublime

Tait-Sung, the Celestial and August, whose

reign is called ‘Ming,’ to Kouan-Yu the Fuh-

yin: Twice thou hast betrayed the trust we

have deigned graciously to place in thee; if

thou fail a third time in fulfilling our

command, thy head shall be severed from thy

neck.Tremble, and obey!”

Now, Kouan-Yu had a daughter of

dazzling loveliness whose name—Ko-Ngai—was ever in the mouths of poets, and

whose heart was even more beautiful than her face. Ko-Ngai loved her father with

such love that she had refused a hundred worthy suitors rather than make hishome

desolate by her absence; and when she had seen the awful yellow missive, sealed

with the Dragon-Seal, she fainted away with fear for her father’s sake.

And when her senses and her strength returned to her, she could not rest or

sleep for thinking of her parent’s danger, until she had secretly sold some of her

jewels, and with the money so obtained had hastened to an astrologer, and paid him

a great price to advise her by what means her father might be saved from the peril

impending over him. So the astrologer made observations of the heavens, and

marked the aspect of the Silver Stream (which we call the Milky Way), and examined

the signs of the Zodiac—the Hwang-tao, or Yellow Road—and consulted the table of

the Five Hin, or Principles of the Universe, and the mystical books of the alchemists.

And after a long silence, he made answer to her, saying: “Gold and brass will never

meet in wedlock, silver and iron never will embrace, until the flesh of a maiden be

melted in the crucible; until the blood of a virgin be mixed with the metals in their

fusion.” So Ko-Ngai returned home sorrowful at heart; but she kept secret all that she

had heard, and told no one what she had done.

At last came the awful day when the third and last effort to cast the great bell

was to be made; and Ko-Ngai, together with her waiting-woman, accompanied her

father to the foundry, and they took their places upon a platform overlooking the

toiling of the moulders and the lava of liquefied metal. All the workmen wrought at

their tasks in silence; there was no sound heard but the muttering of the fires. And

the muttering deepened into a roar like the roar of typhoons approaching, and the

blood-red lake of metal slowly brightened like the vermilion of a sunrise, and the

vermilion was transmuted into a radiant glow of gold, and the gold whitened

blindingly, like the silver face of a full moon. Then the workers ceased to feed the

raving flame, and all fixed their eyes upon the eyes of Kouan-Yu; and Kouan-Yu

prepared to give the signal to cast.

But ere ever he lifted his finger, a cry caused him to turn his head and all heard

the voice of Ko-Ngai sounding sharply sweet as a bird’s song above the great

thunder of the fires—“For thy sake, O my father!” And even as she cried, she leaped

into the white flood of metal; and the lava of the furnace roared to receive her, and

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spattered monstrous flakes of flame to the roof,

and burst over the verge of the earthen crater,

and cast up a whirling fountain of many-coloured

fires, and subsided quakingly, with lightnings and

with thunders and with mutterings.

Then the father of Ko-Ngai, wild with

his grief, would have leaped in after her, but that

strong men held him back and kept firm grasp

upon him until he had fainted away, and they

could bear him like one dead to his home. And the serving-woman of Ko-Ngai, dizzy

and speechless for pain, stood before the furnace, still holding in her hands a shoe, a

tiny, dainty shoe, with embroidery of pearls and flowers—the shoe of her beautiful

mistress that was. For she had sought to grasp Ko-Ngai by the foot as she leaped,

but had only been able to clutch the shoe, and the pretty shoe came off in her hand;

and she continued to stare at it like one gone mad.

But in spite of all these things, the command of the Celestial and August had to

be obeyed, and the work of the molders to be finished, hopeless as the result might

be. Yet the glow of the metal seemed purer and whiter than before; and there was no

sign of the beautiful body that had been entombed therein. So the ponderous casting

was made; and lo! when the metal had become cool, it was found that the bell was

beautiful to look upon and perfect in form, and wonderful in colour above all other

bells. Nor was there any trace found of the body of Ko-Ngai; for it had been totally

absorbed by the precious alloy, and blended with the well-blended brass and gold,

with the intermingling of the silver and the iron. And when they sounded the bell, its

tones were found to be deeper and mellower and mightier than the tones of any

other bell, reaching even beyond the distance of one hundred li, like a pealing of

summer thunder; and yet also like some vast voice uttering a name, a woman’s

name, the name of Ko-Ngai. And still, between each mighty stroke there is a long low

moaning heard; and ever the moaning ends with a sound of sobbing and of

complaining, as though a weeping woman should murmur, “Hiai!”

And still, when the people hear that great golden moan they keep silence, but

when the sharp, sweet shuddering comes in the air, and the sobbing of “Hiai!” then,

indeed, do all the Chinese mothers in all the many-coloured ways of Pe-King whisper

to their little ones: “Listen! that is Ko-Ngai crying for her shoe! That is Ko-Ngai calling

for her shoe!”

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Activity 4: SPIN A STORY WHEEL

In a group of five, answer the questions in the story wheel to get to

know more about the folktale. Share your answers with the class.

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Before KoNgai

leapedto the furnace

Before KoNgai leaped to the furnace

After KoNgai leaped to the furnace

(Indicate paragraph number

where you found your

Activity 5: RING THAT BELL!

Have you noticed the descriptions of the bell in the story? Fill out the

bell’s description on the columns and answer the questions that

Description of the Bell

1. Why was the story given the title “The Soul of the Great Bell”?

2. What other Chinese traditions involve bells? Compare and contrast

these traditions with Filipino traditions.

3. What values or traditions are common to both Filipinos and Chinese?

4. How has the story helped you understand your identity as a Filipino and

as an Asian?

Activity 6: VALUES GALORE

Go over the story of “The Soul of the Great Bell”. In the chart on the

next page, identify the values and traditions of the Chinese people

that you can infer from the reading selection. Cite the supporting

detail or details in the story to prove your claim. Answer the process

questions that follow.

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The Soul Of The Great Bell

Chinese Value/Tradition Supporting Detail/s in the Story

Activity 7: SIGNALS TO CONNECT

Below are words and lines taken from “The Soul of the Great Bell”.

Find out how these connect the paragraphs in the story. How do you

think is this achieved? Find out as you answer the questions that

1. Therefore the worthy mandarin Kouan-Yu assembled the master-moulders and

the renowned bellsmiths of the empire, and all men of great repute and cunning

in foundry work…

2. But when the metal had been cast, and the earthen mould separated from the

glowing casting,…

3. A second time the bell was cast, and the result was even worse.

4. Now, Kouan-Yu had a daughter of dazzling loveliness whose name—Ko-Ngai—…

5. At last came the awful day when the third and last effort to cast the great bell was

to be made;

6. But ere ever he lifted his finger, a cry caused him to turn his head and all heard

the voice of Ko-Ngai

7. Then the father of Ko-Ngai, wild with his grief, would have leaped in after her, but

that strong men held him back

8. But in spite of all these things, the command of the Celestial and August had to be

obeyed, and the work of the moulders to be finished

9. And still, when the people hear that great golden moan they keep silence, but…

1. What is the function of the underlined expressions? How are they

2. How are the paragraphs organized? What do they show?

3. What are other ways to organize a paragraph?

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The Filipinos, Chinese, and Japanese are all talented and skillful.

Your involvement in the following activities will prove this. Read

carefully the instructions and be ready to present your group work to

Task 1 – For the visual artists: Draw a scene/character/an object from the story that

has the most impact on the group. Give a short explanation on the connection of the

drawing/illustration to our lives as Asians.

Task 2 – for the singers: Choose a song that best interprets the message of the

story and sing it to the class. Your performance may be accompanied by

interpretive movements. Before you perform, give the class a short background of

your chosen song and how it is connected with the traditions and values you have

learned about the Chinese.

Task 3 – for the actors/actresses: Role play the scene that you like best in the story.

Use the words you have learned from the story. Traditional Chinese clothes using

improvised materials may be used. You may also look for background Chinese

music. Here are some suggested scenes but you may come up with other scenes in

workers who labored hard to make the bell

when Kouan Yu received the lemon colored envelope from the Mighty

when KoNgai leaped to the lava of melted iron

Task 4 – for the writers: Write your own ending of the story. Use the transitional

devices you have learned from the selection. Include the tradition and values of the

Chinese shown in the story.

Task 5 – for the techies: Create a five-slide PowerPoint presentation highlighting the

traditions and values of both the Filipinos and the Chinese. You may research on

other Chinese traditions and values related to Filipino values which are not

mentioned in the story. Include them in your slide presentation.

Activity 8: DIFFERENT STROKES FOR DIFFERENT FOLKS

A copy of the scoring rubric based on the Differentiated Learning Rubric by

Maxine from www.atozteacherstuff.com is shown on the next page. Use this for

your group presentation. You will do peer grading. Each group shall score the other

groups based on the indicators given.

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Different Acts for Different Folks (Differentiated Learning)

Indicators 1 2 3 4 Score

Preparation Did not prepare enough for the presentation

Some preparation was done.

A good amount of preparation was done.

Student prepared beyond level of assessment.

Visuals There were no helpful visual aids.

There were a few visual aids.

There were clear and interesting visual aids.

Students created excellent visual aids.

Speaking and Audience Contact

Did not look at the audience and did not speak clearly

Looked at audience some of the time; spoke clearly once in a while

Looked at the audience and spoke clearly.

Held attention of the audience and spoke very expressively

Overall understanding

of the topic

Group didn’t show sufficient understand-ding of the traditions and values from the story.

Group understood most of the traditions and values from the story.

Group understood the entire traditions and values presented in the story.

Group understood the traditions and values from the story and presented extra information.

Instilling Values in Students

Helped other students understand at least one important values and traditions of other countries

Helped other students understand at least two important values and traditions of other countries

Helped other students understand at least three important values and traditions of other countries

Helped other students understand at least four important values and traditions of other countries

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Long, long ago there lived at the foot of the

mountain a poor farmer and his aged, widowed mother . They owned a bit of land which supplied them with food, and their humble were peaceful and happy.

Shinano was governed by a despotic leader who though a warrior, had a great

and cowardly shrinking from anything suggestive of failing health and strength. This

caused him to send out a cruel proclamation. The entire province was given strict

orders to immediately put to death all aged people. Those were barbarous days, and

the custom of abandoning old people to die was not common. The poor farmer loved

his aged mother with tender reverence, and the order filled his heart with sorrow. But

no one ever thought a second time about obeying the mandate of the governor, so

with many deep hopeless sighs, the youth prepared for what at that time was

considered the kindest mode of death.

Just at sundown, when his day’s work was ended, he took a quantity of

unwhitened rice which is principal food for poor, cooked and dried it, and tying it in a

square cloth, swung and bundle around his neck along with a gourd filled with cool,

sweet water. Then he lifted his helpless old mother to his back and stated on his

painful journey up the mountain. The road was long and steep; the narrowed road

was crossed and recrossed by many paths made by the hunters and woodcutters. In

some place, they mingled in a confused puzzled, but he gave no heed. One path or

another, it mattered not. On he went, climbing blindly upward – ever upward towards

the high bare summit of what is known as Obatsuyama, the mountain of the

“abandoning of aged”.

The eyes of the old mother were not so dim but that they noted the reckless

hastening from one path to another, and her loving heart grew anxious. Her son did

You had a glimpse of the Chinese way of life through the previous

section. You will now have a taste of Japanese culture in this section.

See if there are similarities between the Chinese and Japanese customs

and traditions as shown here. Then, identify any resemblance to your

own culture and values as a Filipino and as an Asian.

Read the following Japanese folktale. Study how the organization of

the paragraphs helps develop the story. You will also have to deduce

from the selection some of the Japanese traditions and values.

The Story of the Aged Mother

A Japanese Folktale

by Matsuo Basho

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not know the mountain’s many paths and his

return might be one of danger, so she st

retched forth her hand and snapping the twigs

from brushes as they passed, she quietly

dropped a handful every few steps of the way

so that they climbed, the narrow path behind

them was dotted at frequent intervals with tiny

piles of twigs. At last the summit was reached.

Weary and heart sick, the youth gently released his burden and silently prepared a

place of comfort as his last duty to the loved one. Gathering fallen pine needle, he

made a soft cushion and tenderly lifting his old mother therein, he wrapped her

padded coat more closely about the stooping shoulders and with tearful eyes and an

aching heart said farewell.

The trembling mother’s voice was full of unselfish love as she gave her last

injunction. “Let not thine eyes be blinded, my son.” She said. “The mountain road is

full of dangers. Look carefully and follow the path which holds the piles of twigs. They

will guide you to the familiar way farther down”.

The son’s surprised eyes looked back over the path, then at the poor old,

shrivelled hands all scratched and soiled by their work of love. His heart smote him

and bowing to the grounds, he cried aloud: “Oh, honorable mother, thy kindness

thrusts my heart! I will not leave thee. Together we will follow the path of twigs, and

together we will die!”

Once more he shouldered his burden (how light it seemed no) and hastened

down the path, through the shadows and the moonlight, to the little hut in the valley.

Beneath the kitchen floor was a walled closet for food, which was covered and

hidden from view. There the son hid his mother, supplying her with everything

needful and continually watching and fearing. Time passed, and he was beginning to

feel safe when again the governor sent forth heralds bearing an unreasonable order,

seemingly as a boast of his power. His demand was that his subject should present

him with a rope of ashes. The entire province trembled with dread. The order must

be obeyed yet who in all Shinano could make a rope of ashes?

One night, in great distress, the son whispered the news to his hidden mother.

“Wait!” she said. “I will think. I will think” On the

second day she told him what to do. “Make rope

twisted straw,” she said. “Then stretch it upon a

row of flat stones and burn it there on the

windless night.” He called the people together

and did as she said and when the blaze had

died, behold upon the stones with every twist

and fiber showing perfectly. Lay a rope of

whitehead ashes.

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The governor was pleased at the wit of the youth and praised greatly, but he

demanded to know where he had obtained his wisdom. “Alas! Alas!” cried the farmer,

“the truth must be told!” and with deep bows he related his story. The governor

listened and then meditated in silence. Finally he lifted his head. “Shinano needs

more than strength of youth,” he said gravely. “Ah, that I should have forgotten the

well-known saying, “with the crown of snow, there cometh a wisdom!”. That very

hour the cruel law was abolished, and the custom drifted into as far a past that only

legends remain.

Activity 9: WORD WATCH

Directions: In the middle of each Word Chart are words highlighted

in the text. In your group, give the definition of the word in focus.

Then, give examples of words with similar meanings (SYNONYMS)

and words that have opposite meaning (ANTONYMS). Finally, use

the word in a sentence. Write in the circle below.

What is it?

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The Story of The Aged Mother

Japanese Value/ Tradition

Supporting Detail/s In The Story

Activity 10: GOING JAPANESE

In the chart below, identify the values and traditions of the Japanese

people that you can infer from the reading selection “The Story of the

Aged Mother”. Cite the supporting detail or details in the story to

prove your claim. Answer the process questions that follow.

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PROCESS QUESTIONS

1. Do you find the values and/or traditions of the Japanese people illustrated in the

story similar to your values and/or traditions as a Filipino? Explain briefly.

2. Do you think these values and/or traditions are also true to your other Asian

neighbors especially the Chinese? Why?

3. Why is it important to know the values and traditions of our Asian neighbors?

Recall how you’ve given your own ending to the story “The Soul of

the Great Bell”. You have provided a “sort” of condition, a “what if”

situation, right? And now, you have just read “The Story of the Aged

Mother”. Imagine yourself creating your own story line. To be able to

successfully do that, you need to learn how to formulate correct

conditional statements.

1. If I could talk to the son, I would express my admiration for him.

2. If I could talk to the mother, I would congratulate her on having a son like him.

3. If the son had left his mother in the mountain, then she would have died.

4. If you were the son, would you also save your mother?

5. I will express my admiration to people who do good despite of the difficulty if I

will meet one.

1. What word is common among the given sentences?

2. What does it express?

3. What are the common uses of conditional sentences?

Exercise A. Complete the line with the most appropriate “if” statement.

1. Ko-Ngai would not die a tragic death ________________________________.

2. _______________________ would you also jump into the boiling metal?

3. The farmer’s mother would die _________________________________.

4. _________________, the custom of abandoning aged people would have

5. ____________________________, their parents would be very happy.

Activity 11: ON ONE CONDITION

Analyze the following “what if statements” inspired by The Story of

The Aged Mother. Answer the questions that follow.

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Rule For Happiness (Japanese Style)

Importance To You As A Filipino

Very Important

Important Least

Exercise B. Write two to three sentences using conditional statements about

Chinese and Japanese traditions and values you have learned from the previous

activities. Compare these values with some common Filipino values and cite the title

of the story where those values are evident.

If the Chinese and Japanese value their families, the Filipinos love their families, too,

as shown in the story The Mats.

1. _________________________________________________________________

2. _________________________________________________________________

3. _________________________________________________________________

Get to know more about Japanese customs and traditions by

watching a video clip on the Seven Rules for Happiness Japanese

Style. As you watch the video clip, take note of some important points

that will help you in working on the next exercise.

After watching the clip, list down the seven rules for happiness. Have

a self-assessment on these rules by placing a check mark in the

appropriate column to indicate how important each rule is to you as a

Filipino and Asian. (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HpF9UlzkQ1c)

Activity 12: SEVEN RULES

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Keynote Speech Excerpt: I am honoured to be with you tonight and to have been invited to be the first

Li KaShing professor here at Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. It is a great privilege to be associated with such an influential school at a

world-class university. I am proud as well to be linked, even indirectly, with two of the outstanding

figures in Asia’s growing success and rising influence on our world. I am sorry that my dear friend Lee Kuan Yew has not been able to join us

here tonight. I will try to meet the high standards he always sets for himself and for this

country. Standards that I know are reflected at this wonderful university and in its

students. Indeed, the success of this remarkable city state provides a fitting context for

what I want to talk about today. Singapore is a shining example of Asia’s growing economic and political

success and an impressive testimony to the vision, courage and commitment

Directions: In answering the questions about the video clip you have just seen, do the “Think Pair Share” strategy.

Think about your answer to each question. As soon as you’ve written your answer on the space provided, Pair up with your seatmate and discuss your answers. Agree on one common answer to each question

and Share your answer with the class.

1. How many of the rules for happiness mentioned in the video clip have you

checked as ‘very important’? Why do you consider them ‘very important’? 2. How many of the rules for happiness have you checked as ‘least important’?

Why do you consider them ‘least important’? 3. What have you realized about your own values as a Filipino based on your

answers to the activity? 4. As you listened to and watched the video clip on the Seven Rules for Happiness

Japanese Style, what did you notice about how the Japanese woman expressed her feelings?

5. As non-native English speakers, how similar to or different are we from Japanese people in term of using the English language?

6. Does this activity help you in understanding your identity as an Asian? How?

You have learned in lesson 1 that meaning changes due to stress, intonation and juncture or a pause. Study the excerpt of the Keynote Speech by Junichiro Koizumi, Prime Minister of Japan on the Occasion of the Asia-Africa Business Summit on April 22, 2005 at Mulia Hotel, Jakarta. Read the speech excerpt observing proper stress, intonation and pauses.

Activity 13: SPEAK THE LANGUAGE

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which is found here in such abundance. Your region is on a roll. You, unlike Europe and the US, learnt the lessons

from the financial crisis of the late 90s and put in place prudent measures to prevent a repeat. The result is your economies have weathered the recent global storms much better – and already returned to strong growth.

Over the past decades, this economic growth has helped lift hundreds of millions out of poverty. It has also established the region’s leadership on critical global issues, including trade and climate change. This is impressive in itself, but even more so if compared to the fate of Africa.

At the time of decolonization, the level of economic development in most of Asia was comparable with that of Africa. Four decades ago, for example, the per capita income of South Korea was virtually the same as that of Sudan.

Yet today, South Korea is one of the richest countries in the world while Sudan is among the poorest. Unfortunately, this comparison holds true for most countries in the two regions.

The divergent paths of Africa and Asia are a much studied subject. I want today to focus on how Africa can learn from the approach and success of Asia and, crucially, how we can build a more effective partnership to the benefit of everyone..

For the full text of the speech, follow this link:

http://kofiannanfoundation.org/newsroom/speeches/2010/03/asia-and-africa-past-

lessons-future-ambitions

1. What is the speech about? Give its gist in one sentence.

2. Did the speech increase your knowledge about the values and traditions of Asia and Africa? Explain.

3. How does stress, intonation, and juncture or pause affect the delivery of speech?

4. What tips can you give the learners of English on how to deliver a good speech?

5. How does the speech affect you being an Asian? Do you understand

better your identity as an Asian through it?

Read this article about Japanese and Chinese traditions. How does the knowledge of these traditions and values help you in understanding better your identity as an Asian?

Now that you have explored ideas about Chinese and Japanese

traditions, how can you better understand your identity as an Asian?

This final PROCESS activity may give you a better view of the

collective values and traditions that Asians particularly Chinese and

Japanese hold dear.

Activity 14: EXTRAditions!

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The Japanese Tea Ceremony is a cultural tradition that

originated in China. The tea was considered medicine that promoted physical and spiritual health and was consumed for enjoyment purposes primarily. The spiritual aspect involves harmony between the persons participating in the ceremony, respect for those involved in the ceremony, and purity. These three aspects bring tranquility to those who

participate in the tradition.

Japanese Theater : Noh & Kabuki Drama Noh drama is rigidly traditional Japanese drama

which in its present form dates back to the early 14th century. Noh plays are short dramas combining music, dance, and lyrics, with a highly stylized ritualistic presentation. Kabuki drama combined elements of noh drama and folk theater.

The Japanese New Year Celebration (January 1-15) In Japan, the celebration of the New Year is the most significant and important

holiday. During this time they begin the New Year with a clean slate, spend time with family and friends and prepare for the events of the New Year. After the cleaning, houses are decorated with straw ropes and pine bough that is burned in a ceremonial bonfire at the end of the New Year’s celebration.

Kimono and Yukata are traditional Japanese clothing. Kimono are made of silk and are usually very expensive. Nowadays they are worn at formal or traditional occasions such as funerals, weddings or tea ceremonies. Only rarely can kimono still be seen in everyday life. The Yukata, on the other hand, is more of informal leisure clothing.

Sumo is a Japanese style of

wrestling and Japan's national sport. It originated in ancient times as a performance to entertain the Shinto gods. Many rituals with religious background are still followed today.

Most houses in Japan have tatami mats. Tatami were originally a luxury item for the nobility. During the Heian period, when the shinden-zukuri architectural style of aristocratic residences was

Japanese and Chinese Traditions

Many Japanese traditions stem from their deep roots in religions. Two main religions dominate the Japanese culture: Buddhism and Shintoism.

Buddhist practices and beliefs in Japan stemmed from practices in China and were very similar to those in China.

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consummated, the flooring of shinden-zukuri palatial rooms were mainly wooden, and tatami were only used as seating for the highest aristocrats. It is said that prior to the mid-16th century, the ruling nobility and samurai slept on tatami or woven mats called goza, while commoners used straw mats or loose straw for bedding.

Japanese Haiku started as Hokku, an opening stanza of an

orthodox collaborative linked poem, or renga, and of its later derivative, renku (or haikai no renga). By the time of Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694), the hokku had begun to appear as an independent poem, and was also incorporated in haibun(a combination of prose and hokku), and haiga (a combination of painting with hokku). In the late 19th century, Masaoka Shiki (1867–1902) renamed the standalone hokku or poem to haiku.

Like the Japanese, Chinese considered tea as one of

their seven basic necessities. Firewood, oil, salt, soy sauce and vinegar were some of the basic needs. Ways of tea preparation, tasting it and the occasions on which it is consumed make the Chinese tea culture unique.

In the beginning, tea was cultivated and used solely

as herbal medicine mostly within temples. Monks began to use tea to teach a respect for nature, humility and an overall sense of peace and calm. Today, there are six major aspects to consider when performing a Chinese Tea Ceremony: attitude of the person performing the ceremony, tea selection, water selection, tea ware selection, ambiance and technique.

Children serve tea to their elders as a token of respect. People of lower order are supposed to serve tea to people of higher ranks. This custom is still practiced on formal occasions.

Chinese weddings have certain traditional customs. As a form of expressing gratitude, the bride and groom kneel in front of their parents and offer them tea. In olden times, drinking the tea offered showed acceptance of marriage

while refusal represented opposition to the marriage. Chopsticks are believed to symbolize kindness and gentleness. Confucianism taught the Chinese to abandon knives and forks from the dining table. So they have their food cut to bite-size before it comes on the table.

New Year is one of the most prominent festivals of the Chinese calendar. It is about getting together. Red is believed to abolish bad luck. So people clothe in red for the New Year celebration.

A long dragon made of silk, bamboo, and paper are carried along streets. Young men hold the dragon and dance while carrying the dragon along. The Dragon dance is an ancient Chinese tradition.

When you give your gift make sure to wrap it in red and gold never with white, black or gray as they symbolize death.

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3 Things You Find Out:

2 Interesting Things You Discovered

1 Questions You Still Have to Ask

Response Before the Lesson

Statements Response After the Lesson

Japan, Philippines, and

China have many examples

China has different folktales

that feature their religious

Only Asian countries have

wedding traditions.

Love for family is often the

theme of Japan’s oral

Directions: After reading the article, do the 3-2-1 Chart below.

At this point, has your knowledge of the traditions and values of

selected Afro-Asian counties increased? Are you now ready to modify

your initial answers to the focus question: As a Filipino, how can you

better understand your identity as an Asian?

Fill out the ARG Worksheet that follows. Feel free to modify your

initial answers.

Anticipation-Reaction Guide

Read the set of statements found at the center column in the table below. Respond

to each statement by writing:

Agree if you agree with the given statements.

Disagree if you disagree with the statements.

In your notebook, write your answer in the last column. Compare your previous

answers with your answers now.

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so is taken very seriously.

Kimono, geisha, sumo,

Japan have rice and tofu as

staple food.

Japanese write haikus to

honor nature.

religiosity and value for

In the previous section, the discussion was about the concepts

related to the common values and traditions among selected Asian

countries particularly China and Japan.

Go back to the previous section and compare your initial ideas with

the things you learned. How many of your initial ideas are similar to

those discussed in the section? Which ideas are different and need

refinement?

Now that you know the important ideas about this topic, let us go

deeper by moving on to the next section.

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Aspect of Life/ Culture

China Japan Philippines

Famous festivals

Wedding Traditions

cuisines/dishes

Family Values

Music/Theater Arts

Martial arts

Social values

Popular culture

Unique Beliefs

Conduct an online or library research to come up with a

comprehensive view of the unifying and distinctive characteristics,

values, and traditions of the people of China, Japan, and

Philippines in preparation for your final performance task. Use the template on

the next page to guide you in your online or library research.

Your goal in this section is to enrich your familiarity

with the common traditions and values of selected

Afro-Asian countries, particularly China, Japan, and the

Philippines. In this phase, you will engage yourself in a

further search for knowledge to satisfy your curiosity

and deepen your understanding of your being an

Activity 15: INFO SEARCH

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Inference Evidence

Activity 16: IT HELPS TO KNOW...

Read the following passages about Asian-African traditions and

values and draw conclusions or make logical predictions about

each. Copy the Inference-Evidence Chart in your notebook and

write your answers there.

1. Parents are really very keen to see that their children are married to suitable

families. Married sons continue to live in the same household with their parents.

It is considered ideal for men to marry and bring their wives to go and live with

them after marriage. A unique feature of the Chinese family is the one child

policy that has been enforced by the law of the country. The first son enjoys the

greatest benefits in terms of education and opportunities. The first daughter

takes responsibility in helping to raise her younger siblings.

2. Unlike other Asian countries where women tend to be in more subservient

positions, women in the Philippines have had high societal positions since pre-

colonial times. Since there is gender equality, businesses are more accepting

of women performing business.

http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/philippines/pro-family_customs.htm

Inference-Evidence Chart

3. In many places in Africa, young girls are trained to be good wives from an early

age. They may even learn secret codes and secret languages that allow them to

talk with other married women without their husbands understanding what is

being said. Depending on which part of Africa you are in, wedding ceremonies

can be extremely elaborate, some lasting many days. Often huge ceremonies

are held during which many couples are united at the same time.

(http://www.worldweddingtraditions.com/locations/african_traditions.html)

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Five Common Traditions and Values of Asians (Chinese & Japanese) and Africans

Aspect of Culture Specific Tradition/Value Best Features

4. Taking off one’s shoes is another prevalent practice in Japan. While entering

houses, schools and many other buildings, people are expected to take off their

shoes. It is basically done to keep the house clean. Make sure you are wearing

decent socks, as you will be expected to take off your slippers when seated on

tatami mats.

http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/japanese-family-traditions-2550.html

5. In African culture, a child learns at an early age on how to become a good

member of his tribe. Each member of the tribe belongs to an age group that has

special services within the tribe. Each person is expected to contribute to the

tribe by doing his share of the work and obeying its customs.

http://www.victoriafalls-guide.net/african-customs.html

Activity 17: TRADITIONS AND VALUES REVISITED

Directions: Reflect on your previous ideas and fill out this Retrieval

Chart using the knowledge you acquired about the traditions and

values of the people of selected Asian and African countries.

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In this final phase of the lesson, your goal is to apply

your learning to real life situations. You will be given a

practical task which will demonstrate your

understanding. You will likewise finalize your answer to

the focus question that has been asked since the

beginning of this lesson.

To begin with, you need to understand that the goal

of this lesson is for you to learn on your own how to

present information using various tools of data

gathering. More often, in real life situations you will be

required to gather, collate, organize, and present

information in many different occasions. Thus, for your practical task, you are

going to write brief articles for a brochure that contains relevant information about

the culture and values of the Chinese or Japanese people, your Asian neighbors.

You are going to come up with a similar output as follows:

You might be asking how you will go about this practical task. There are

many ways of doing this. But before you worry about the design, learn first the

basic steps in preparing a brochure.

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Fold a piece of paper in thirds and concisely write information on it with graphic

design. It can be completed on the computer or without the aid of the computer.

You may write the information and paste pictures about your topic.

2. Prepare materials needed

Have the following available: paper, colored pencils, markers, photos, artwork, a

computer, color printer, and access to the Internet, if available.

3. Preparatory Procedure

Step 1: Decide on a purpose and a specific topic. Your brochures have to inform

the reader about the traditions and values of the selected Asian and African

countries. You may need to do some research to add more information and

complete the brochure. You should list your resources at the bottom of one panel.

Step 2: Make a draft of the six panels. There are three panels on each side of the

paper. It can be folded in many ways, but the six panels need to be planned out

on a piece of notebook paper.

Front Panel: This should have the title, name of the Group and the individual

members, and basic information about the topic. A picture, a clip art or a small

piece of artwork about the topic is a good addition.

Other Five Panels: Display information with subtitles, pictures, clip art, and

You should decide on what main information you want to display and tell about

your topics. For example, if you are making a travel brochure about a country, one

panel can be about the beaches in the country. If there are many beaches, you

Using the information you gathered in the different activities

included in this lesson:

write in a half sheet of paper a 5-sentence article each about the traditions

and values of China, Japan, and Philippines

provide a catchy title for each article

paste an appropriate photo for your article

Activity 18: CONTENT MATTERS

Activity 19: LEARNING THE BASICS

It’s good that you have written your brief article on the traditions

and values of the Chinese and Japanese. You will need those

articles for your Brochure-making project.

Study the simple guidelines on brochure making below adopted

from the article “Brochure Projects Made Easy with Rubric” by Kellie

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will need to choose the most important ones. A picture is always a good addition.

4. Constructing the Brochure

Step 1: Once the brochure is planned, you can begin working on your final

product. If you will make the brochure on the computer, you can use Microsoft

Word software or Microsoft publisher. The paper can be set up on "landscape"

and each side of the paper can be split into three panels by making three columns

on each page. You can insert clip art, photos, and scanned artwork.

If you are not using a computer, you need to neatly write your information on each

panel and glue photos or clip art to the brochure.

5. Assessing the Brochure with a Rubric

The brochure can be assessed using a scoring rubric. Again, key criteria could be

accuracy, neatness, creativity and appropriate use of color.

This is what you do:

Prepare a letter-size sheet of paper by folding it twice to form a tri-fold brochure.

That will give you three outside areas, or "panels," to work with and one large

area, or "spread," inside.

Present your brochure to the class as soon as you are ready. Wait for your

teacher to give you the cue.

Prepare your information:

Gather information about the tourist attractions, local festivals and unique

qualities of your barangay or locality. Interview long-time residents and local

Arrange your information according to "topics" based on the assignment. For

example, you might gather all information collected about living

accommodations that a visitor might expect to find in your locality, the kinds of

You have learned how to make a brochure based on the given guidelines. You will try your knowledge of the steps by doing the given activity below. You may follow the previous guidelines or

work with the suggested steps in this activity. Don’t hesitate to ask for details or clarify instructions. Directions: Read carefully the task below. In your group with five members, do the

activities that follow.

Activity 20: BROWSING YOUR BROCHURE

You are a feature writer of your school paper. You have been asked by the

barangay council to promote tourism as an industry. One of your first tasks is to

design a travel brochure. This brochure will be distributed to the visitors of your

barangay. Copies of your brochure will likewise be distributed to restaurants and

stores that sell local products.

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terrain a traveler might expect to pass through; modes of transportation; the

gifts tourists can expect to buy in your place; and things to see and do in your

Tips for designing a brochure:

Create a colorful and eye-catching cover for your brochure.

Remember to provide accurate and detailed information on how visitors could

get to the place.

Make your brochure as attractive, appealing, and informative as you can.

Balance the text with illustrations and use varied colors.

The following criteria will be used in evaluating your travel brochure:

Quality of the Information on How to Get There (10 points possible)

High-Quality Work: All possible modes of transportation are mentioned and

explained. The terrains are mentioned as well as traffic conditions in the area.

Map is beautifully colored.

Satisfactory Work: Comments about modes of transportation, terrains, traffic

condition are included but not well explained. Map is neatly colored.

Unsatisfactory Work: No map. Very vague descriptions of the modes of

transportation, terrains and traffic situation.

Quality of the Information on Tourist Attractions (10 points possible)

High-Quality Work: All tourist attractions including festivals are explained

thoroughly. All possible reasons on why visitors have to visit the attractions have

been provided.

Satisfactory Work: Some tourist attractions including festivals have been

explained. Some possible reasons have been given on why visitors have to visit

the attractions have been provided.

Unsatisfactory Work: Few tourist attractions have been identified. Festivals are not

mentioned. No reasons were mentioned as to why visitors have to visit the place.

Organization of Brochure (10 points possible)

High-Quality Work: Information is organized. The brochure is easy to read and

"flows" very well. The sections of the brochure are in an order.

Satisfactory Work: Most of the brochure is organized. The brochure has decent

"flow" throughout. The sections of the brochure are in a logical order.

Unsatisfactory Work: Very difficult to follow. Information doesn't "flow" in a way

that makes sense. Very disorganized.

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Here is the CHECKLIST FOR the REVIEW OF a TRAVEL BROCHURE.

Exchange brochure with the other group and evaluate the group’s sample travel

brochure by checking on the appropriate column.

CATEGORIES High Quality Satisfactory Unsatisfactory

Information on

How to Get There

Tourist Attractions

Organization of

By this time you are now ready to perform your practical task

in this lesson. You are on your own to figure out which of the skills

you learned in the previous activities you will use to meet the

standards set in this given task.

Directions: Read the task below. In your group, discuss and plan on how you will

make your travel brochure. The rubric for grading is provided here to remind you on

how your work will be graded.

Activity 21: FEATURING...OUR BROCHURES

Travel and Tours Organization plans to publish a two-page

brochure that contains relevant information about the culture and

values of China, Japan and Philippines which they will use for their

marketing campaign.

The Organization chose your advertising company to prepare

the brochure.

As the writer you are tasked to:

Write 5-sentence article about the traditions and values of the

three countries with accurate information

Design the brochure with attractive layout and a good mix of

graphics and arts

Observe the principles of clear organization, correct grammar,

spelling and mechanics and effective vocabulary.

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RUBRIC FOR ASSESSMENT OF BROCHURE ON TRADITIONS AND VALUES

First, evaluate your finished brochure using the rubric below. You may revise

your output after doing your self-check. Then, submit your group’s final output to your

CATEGORY 4 3 2 1

Content - Accuracy

All facts in the brochure are accurate.

99-90% of the facts in the brochure are accurate.

89-80% of the facts in the brochure are accurate.

Fewer than 80% of the facts in the brochure are accurate.

Writing - Organization

Each section in the brochure has a clear beginning, middle, and end.

Almost all sections of the brochure have a clear beginning, middle and end.

Most sections of the brochure have a clear beginning, middle, and end.

Less than half of the sections of the brochure have a clear beginning, middle, and end.

Writing - Grammar

There are no grammatical mistakes in the brochure.

There are 1-2 grammatical mistakes in the brochure.

There are 3-4 grammatical mistakes in the brochure.

There are several grammatical mistakes in the brochure.

Attractiveness & Organization

The brochure has exceptionally attractive formatting and well-organized information.

The brochure has attractive formatting and well-organized information.

The brochure has well-organized information.

The brochure's formatting and organization of material are confusing to the

reader. Graphics/ Pictures

Graphics go well with the text and there is a good mix of text and graphics.

Graphics go well with the text, but there are so many that they distract from the text.

Graphics go well with the text, but there are too few and the brochure seems "text-heavy"

Graphics do not go with the accompanying text or appear to be randomly chosen.

Writing - Mechanics

Capitalization and punctuation are correct throughout the brochure.

Capitalization and punctuation are correct throughout the brochure after feedback from an adult.

There are 1-2 capitalization and/or punctuation errors in the brochure even after feedback from an adult.

There are several capitalization or punctuation errors in the brochure even after feedback

from an adult.

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3-2-1 Chart– is a graphic organizer that calls for the use of process skills like data

gathering and analysis. Accomplishing the 3-2-1 chart requires identifying three

things found out/discovered about the topic; two interesting things learned and

one question that still needs to be answered which is not covered by the

topic/article read.

ARG or Anticipation-Reaction Guide – aims to illustrate student or class’s prior

knowledge about a topic or section of a lesson which is similar to the K-W-L-H

technique; it is also used to assess student or class’s knowledge before, during

and after the lesson.

Brochure project – a two-page flyer or leaflet that usually has many pictures and

information about a product, a place, etc. as in the example for this lesson, a

travel brochure.

Customs – is an action or way of behaving that is usual and traditional among the

people in a particular group or place.

Deduce–is to use logic or reason to form (conclusion or opinion about something); is

to decide (something) after thinking about known facts.

Excerpt – a small part usually the most important or interesting of a longer written

work or oral work like a speech.

Folktales - are oral narratives that do not have a singular, identifiable author.

Expanded and shaped by the tongues of tellers over time, and passed down

from one generation to the next, folktales often reflect the values and customs of

the culture from which they come. Because folktale plots are generally

concerned with life's universal themes, they also transcend their culture of origin

to reveal the commonality of human experience. This ancient form of narrative

communication for both education and entertainment not only offers a window

into other cultures, but can also be a revealing mirror of the comedy and pathos

of our lives.

Identity–refers to the qualities, belief, value system that makes a particular person

or group different from others.

Inference-Evidence chart – is a graphic organizer that needs skills in making

inferences (drawing conclusions about what is implied but not directly stated)

and gathering evidence or factual information to support the inference.

Making Inferences - or infer is often described as "reading between the lines."

Making an inference involves using background knowledge combined with

information from the text and illustrations to draw conclusions about what is

implied but not directly stated (Pinnell & Scharer, 2003). In other words,

sometimes an author does not come right out and tell something but uses words

or illustrations to show readers so they can draw their own conclusions and

make logical predictions.

Peer Grading – makes use of a rubric that is accomplished by members of the

different groups in a class to give a score or grade the output or performances of

other groups.

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Retrieval Chart- is a graphic organizer used for organizing and categorizing data

using headings or key concepts. Retrieval Charts are useful for:

Presenting information in an easily accessible way;

Comparing and contrasting attributes;

Organizing data for use in research projects and the like; and

Note taking in a systematic way.

TPS or Think, Pair, Share strategy –is a group activity that calls for a step by step

approach in discussing answers in the group. First, the members in the group

are asked Think about answers to a question on their own. As soon as they’ve

written/thought of their answers, each member will Pair with another member of

the group. They discuss their answers and agree on one common answer to

each question before they could Share their answer to the group and finally to

Tradition – means a way of thinking, behaving or doing something that has been

used by people in a particular group, family, society; pertains to stories, beliefs,

customs that have been part of the culture of a group of people for a long time.

Values – a strongly held belief about what is valuable, important or acceptable like

cultural, moral, religious, traditional

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Hello, young explorers! You have reached

your final journey in searching for knowledge.

You have received enough information to build

up your knowledge bank. It’s time for you to share that knowledge with others.

At the end of this lesson, you are expected to put up your own informative and

creative exhibit showcasing the traditions and values of people from selected Afro-

Asian countries discussed in Lessons 1- 3.

To give you an overview of the things you will do in this lesson, pay close

attention to the expected skills and the lesson map.

1. Listen to points the speaker emphasizes as signaled by contrastive sentence

stress (Listening Comprehension)

2. Use stress, intonation, and juncture to signal changes in meaning (Speaking-

Oral Language and Fluency)

3. Guess the meaning of expressions by noting keywords in expressions,

context clues, collocations, clusters, etc. (Vocabulary Development)

4. Skim to determine the author’s key ideas and purpose by answering

questions raised after surveying the text (Reading Comprehension)

5. Read closely to select appropriate details from a selection for specific

purposes. (Reading Comprehension)

6. Narrate events logically (Viewing Comprehension)

7. Validate mental images of the information conveyed by a program viewed

(Viewing Comprehension)

8. Respond to questions raised in a program reviewed. (Viewing

Comprehension)

9. Discover through literature the links between one’s life and the lives of people

throughout the world. (Literature)

10. Transcode ideas from texts to concept maps. (Writing and Composition)

11. Make write-up ideas presented in concept maps. (Writing and Composition)

12. Use of coordinators and subordinators. (Grammar Awareness and Structure)

13. Use of correct complex and compound-complex sentences. (Grammar

Awareness and Structure)

14. Get and assess current information from newspaper and other print and non-

print media. (Study Strategies)

15. Set new goals for learning on the basis of self-assessment made. (Attitude)

16. Put up an informative and creative exhibit.

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write your goals and targets (expectations) in the box provided below:

Let us begin this lesson by reflecting on what you

know so far about Afro-Asian people, in particular, their

traditional dances.

Are you familiar with our traditional

dances? Can you name one? Take a

look at the following pictures and answer

the questions that follow:

Activity 1: THE THOUGHTS THAT I KNOW ARE…

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1. What do the pictures show? What do they have in common?

2. Can you identify what country is being represented in picture 1? How about the

other pictures?

3. What helps you in identifying the specific country shown in each picture?

4. Do these pictures help you understand your identity as an Asian? How?

Directions: Explain your answer to this question by accomplishing the IRF

worksheet below. Accomplish the (I) for your Initial Answer. As you continue doing

this module, you still have a chance to Revise your answer and come up with your

Final Answer.

Initial Answer

Revised Answer

Final Answer

Good start! But your search for knowledge is not yet over; in fact, you

have just begun another journey to discover new things and the privilege

to share these with others.

You have just shared your first discovery that dance is a part of human

culture and traditions. Let’s find out how others would answer the question

and compare their ideas to our own. As we compare, you will also learn

other concepts which will help you complete the required project.

Your project is to put up an informative and creative exhibit showcasing

the traditions and values of people from selected Afro-Asian countries.

You will start by doing the next activity.

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Your goal in this section is to learn and understand

key concepts related to Indian and Persian people. We

will start with India, let’s try to find out why the Indians

are said to be a remarkable people. We will do this by

studying aspects of their identity, their culture, and their

literature.

As you go through this part, be guided by this

question: How can you better understand your identity

Listen as your teacher reads the passage on Indian

culture. Notice how she puts emphasis to some important words in the sentences to

communicate the message more effectively

Source: English for Secondary Schools (Revised Edition) Second Year

India, Library of Nations (Time-Life Books, Amsterdam)

1. Did your teacher give emphasis to all words in the sentence?

2. Can you recall the words that were stressed? What do we call those words?

3. What words were not stressed? Why do you think they were not stressed?

4. What do we call this emphasis or prominence which is given only to a syllable of

certain words in a sentence?

You have learned in your previous lessons that Sentence stress

refers to the emphasis or prominence given to a syllable of certain

words in a sentence.

Content Words like nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, and

interrogatives when used as subjects are sometimes stressed because they have

meaning in themselves.

On the other hand, Function Words like articles, auxiliaries, linking verbs,

conjunctions, pronouns, and prepositions are not normally stressed. These

words do not have meaning except when they are used in relation to their

grammatical use in the sentence.

Having understood the difference between content and function

words try to do the oral practice and accomplish the retrieval chart

afterwards.

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Directions: With your partner, take turns in reading this paragraph

properly. Be sure to put emphasis to a syllable of a content word.

The Prophet by Khalil Gibran

Then a ploughman said, "Speak to us of Work."

You work that you may keep pace with the earth and the soul of the earth. For

to be idle is to become a stranger unto the seasons, and to step out of life's

procession, that marches in majesty and proud submission towards the infinite.

Work is love made visible. And if you cannot work with love but only with

distaste, it is better that you should leave your work and sit at the gate of the

temple and take alms of those who work with joy.

For if you bake bread with indifference, you bake a bitter bread that feeds but

half man's hunger.

And if you grudge the crushing of the grapes, your grudge distils a poison in

the wine. And if you sing though as angels, and love not the singing, you muffle

man's ears to the voices of the day and the voices of the night.

Process this activity using the retrieval chart.

Retrieval Chart

Directions: Pick out 10 words from the excerpts and classify them as content or

function words. Then, tell whether they are stressed or unstressed; write your

answers in Column 3. Give your reasons why you have the words as such. Write

your reasons in the box provided.

Content Word/Function

Stressed/ Not stressed

Activity 2: PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

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Reasons for your answers:

Grammar Recall: Coordinating and Subordinating Conjunctions

Take a look at these lines taken from the excerpt and answer the questions

1. What is said about work in the paragraph?

2. According to Gibran, what are the better things to do if one cannot work with love

but only with distaste?

3. How many ideas are given to answer question no. 3? What word is used to

connect these ideas?

4. How do we call this word that connects ideas?

5. Can you give other connectors that join words, phrases, and clauses? Give one.

When do you use that connector?

Now take a look at these lines:

“If you bake bread with indifference, you bake bitter bread that feeds but half

man's hunger.

If you grudge the crushing of the grapes, your grudge distils a poison in the

1. How many ideas are joined in the first lines? What are those?

2. What about in the second line?

3. Does the first part of every sentence convey a complete thought? Why? Why

4. What word is used to introduce the first part of the sentence? What is its function

in the sentence?

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1. The And type And is used to add something to what has already been said. It should be

used only when the second idea is along the same line of thought as the first idea. Examples: a. The man was ugly and mean. (The words ugly and mean are both negative qualities.) b. She is attractive and bad tempered. (The sentence is faulty because attractive is a positive quality while bad

tempered is a negative quality.) 2. The But type

But adds something contrary to or different from what has been said. When we use and, the second part of the sentence expresses an idea similar to the first. When we use but, the second part of the sentence expresses an idea that is the contrast to the first.

Example: He is stupid but hardworking. (Stupid expresses a negative quality while hardworking expresses positive quality. The second idea is constructive.)

3. The Or type Or implies a choice. It connects ideas of equal value, giving one a chance to

choose either idea. Examples: a. You can come today or tomorrow. b. I can go or stay as I please.

A. Coordinating conjunctions tie together words and word-groups which

have the same grammatical construction.

List of coordinating conjuntions:

S -- so Examples:

I study mathematics and history. (Noun)

We sang and danced heartily. (Verbs)

The book was old and soiled. (Adjectives)

They worked rapidly but carefully. (Adverbs)

He went into the water and down to the bottom. (Phrases)

They waited a long time, yet nobody came. (Principal Clauses)

We can go if our father permits us and if he gives us money. (Dependent Clauses)

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4. The So type The conjunction so is used when the second part is a consequence or effect

of the first part. The so type differs from the and type, which implies the same line of thought and from the but type, which implies a contrast. So implies that the second part follows as a result of the first part.

Example: He shouted, so I had to listen to him.

B. Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinators are function words that join dependent clauses to main clauses; they are of two types: those that pattern like because and form that pattern like who, whom, whose, which and that.

These words not only introduce the subordinate clause but link it to the main clause. Their chief function is to make clear what the relation between the two clauses is. The chief relations they show are time, place, cause, result, exception, condition, and alternative.

Subordinators express various logical relationships such as: 1. Purpose: so that, in order that, in case, lest They read that they may learn. They read, so that they may learn. 2. Cause and effect: because, since, whereas, inasmuch as He failed because he did not study. He could not stand the wind and rain since he fell ill. 3. Manner: as, as if, as though, in such a way that Tess is acting as if she knows everything. 4. Condition: if, even if, unless, in case, in the event that If you go with me, I’ll treat you to a snack. I’ll not speak to you unless you go with me. 5. Place: where, wherever I don’t know where I lost it. 6. An adjectival subordinate clauses are usually introduced by the pronouns

who, whom, whose, which and that. These pronouns are called relative pronouns because they relate the adjective clause to the word the clause modifies (the antecedent of the relative pronoun). In addition to referring to the word the clause modifies, the relative pronoun has a job to do within the adjective clause.

a. The boy who won the prize is my cousin. (The relative pronoun who relates the adjective clause to boy. It also

functions as the subject of the adjective clause.) b. Javeline is one of the people whom I invited.

(Whom relates the adjective clause to people; it also functions as the direct object of the clause, I invited.)

c. The boys apologized to the man whose window they had broken. (Whose relates the clause to man. Within the adjective clause it functions as a modifier of window.)

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Activity 3: CONNECT ME IF I’M RIGHT

Using the Correct Coordinating Conjunctions

Directions: What coordinating conjunctions should connect these

clauses? Write your answer on the space provided for you.

___ 1. It was raining. We went out.

___ 2. It was a warm day. We took off our sweaters.

___ 3. He was an extravagant person. He did not spend all his money.

___ 4. He was an extravagant person. He spent his money foolishly.

___ 5. Tell the truth. I will punish you.

___ 6. Tell the truth. I’ll not punish you.

___ 7. Anton lost his book. He didn’t look for it.

___ 8. You will hand in your theme on time. I’ll impose a penalty.

___ 9. Josie studied hard for the test. She got a good grade.

___ 10. You are not paying attention. The teacher will scold you.

Supplying the Appropriate Subordinating Conjunctions

Directions: What subordinating conjunctions should connect these clauses?

Choose from the subordinating conjunction inside the box. Write your answer on

the space provided for you.

when unless

although because

since wherever ___ 1. She could not go out. She felt ill.

___ 2. We went out. The rain stopped.

___ 3. She did not know. She lost her watch.

___ 4. The child is crying. He has been punished.

___ 5. She was not sure. She could go.

___ 6. She didn’t wear her new shoes. Her mother told her to.

___ 7. It was growing dark. She reached home.

___ 8. I’ll attend your party. You invite me.

___ 9. I’ll buy that picture. It is very pretty.

___ 10. She has a lot of books. She doesn’t read them.

Page 83: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Great job! You have combined sets of ideas to form new sentences.

But always remember, we do not just put together any two or three sentences into one. There must be a relationship in meaning between those sentences. You would still encounter more exercises regarding conjunctions in the next quarter.

Previously, you listened to an informative text about the culture of India, now it’s time for you to know additional information about the said country. You will read a selection about the characteristics of Indian Literature.

But, let us first define the unfamiliar words you will encounter in the

text. Let’s do it through Vocabulary Mapping.

Activity 4: VOCABULARY MAPPING

Directions: Give the meaning of the italicized words using the vocabulary mapping procedure.

1. rituals and prayers 2. discourses between teachers and pupils 3. moral undertones 4. cultural revival

Process for Vocabulary Mapping: Accomplish the vocabulary mapping worksheet by following the procedure below: There are 4 squares in each worksheet. Place the italicized word at the middle of

each square. Label each of the four corners of the square with the following headings:

definition, synonym, sentence and picture. Complete what is being asked for in each of the four headings Share your map with the class. Study and follow the given example below.

Definition Synonym

Uncomplaining

Tom was very patient with me when

I didn’t understand the

instructions on how to play soccer.

He helped me join in the game.

To be patient is to care

enough about someone so that

he/she may have the time to

understand.

Page 84: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

VOCABULARY MAPPING WORKSHEET

Definition Synony

The Literature of India is one of the indelible marks of India’s culture. It

has its own unique development. In centuries, India produced some of the

most famous literary works in the world.

Read and study the selection that follows. Find out what are the

factors that contributed to the development of Indian Literature.

Page 85: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Characterestic of Indian Literature

Sanskrit literature originated with an oral tradition that produced the Vedic holy

texts, some time after 1500 B.C. The Aryans, who came from Central Asia bringing

their own Gods with them, memorized these sacred literatures, the Vedas, which

means “knowledge.” The oldest of these holy works is the Rig Veda-“the Veda of

praise”-a collection of 1017 hymns addressed to the various Gods of the Aryans.

After the Rig Veda, came the Brahmanas, which codified the rituals and prayers of

the Brahmins, the priests of the Aryans. The Brahmanas were followed by the

Upanishads, which were discourses between teachers and pupils. Then came the

Puranas, which were essentially the history of the Aryan race and its relationship

with the gods.

The two most famous Puranic epics are the Mahabhrata and the Ramayana,

which have since been used as the sources of countless literary works. The

Mahabharata interwove ideas about cosmology, statecraft, philosophy and the

science of war into its stories of the deeds of Gods and men. It was considered to

be the longest poem in any language. The Ramayana simply recounted a sequence

of heroic adventures, many of them with moral undertones.

When Sanskrit grammar was evolved beginning about 400 B.C., the literary works

aimed to put in order all learning in the form of laws for the arts and sciences, called

shastras, as well as poetry and stylized drama. Prior to this, the Indian constitution

recognized several official languages. This resulted in the production of regional

literature. Major writers such as Bhartrihari, and Mayura emerged when classical

poetry reached its peak in the 7th century A.D. Kalidasa, one of the notable poets, is

better known for his play Sakuntala.

Modern Indian literature started with establishment of civil service training schools

and printing presses early in the 19th century. Western literary and philosophical

writings produced a cultural revival, while vernacular language and culture was

taught to British colonial officials.

Twentieth-century writing has managed to keep alive the sentimental

romanticism of the 19th century, while nationalist leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi

influenced the development of social realism in the earlier works.

Writing in English was viewed with mixed feelings in post-Independence India

but was wel-established nevertheless. Pioneers in this field included Michael Dutt

(1824-73) and Sudhindranath (1901-60), Tagore, and Sri Aurobindo. Sarojini Naidu

achieved fame both as a poet in English and as a patriot.

1. Describe briefly the development of Indian Literature.

2. Explain the role played by religion in Indian literature.

3. Differentiate Ramayana from Mahabharata as to the theme.

4. How do several languages affect the development of Indian literature? 5. How was English accepted as literary medium?

Page 86: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

You now got additional information about India. Do you find it easy to

answer the comprehension questions? If you didn’t, let me give you more

input on how to do it. This is by skimming the article.

In the course of time, you will be asked to do research work in one of

your subjects. Skimming is one skill which can help you get a quick

overview of the material you are reading. To skim is to get the gist or the

general understanding of a reading material.

How do you do it? Here are the key points.

Skimming for Major Ideas

To skim effectively, let your eyes move quickly over the reading

material. The titles, subtitles and illustrations will give you clues about the

content of the material. If there are no subtitles and illustrations, do the

1. Read carefully the topic sentence in the first paragraph, and then skip rapidly to

the next paragraph. In this way, you can get all your facts without having to

spend too much time on the reading matter.

2. If the reading material does not have explicit topic sentences, glance down the

pages. Pick out sentences at random or select nouns and verbs which give you

the trend of the material. Exercise keen judgment as you search for the

catchwords.

3. Read sentences or parts of sentences at random throughout the article. This will

help you grasp the idea of the author as quickly as possible.

Activity 5: READ QUICKLY

Practice one of the methods of skimming. Browse again the article

about the characteristics of Indian Literature and identify the topic

sentence for each paragraph.

What is being discussed in each paragraph?

Paragraph 1: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Paragraph 2: _______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 3: _______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 4: _______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 5: _______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________ Paragraph 6: _______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

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Keep these points in mind:

1. Read the material and determine its purpose and structure.

2. Pick out the writer’s thesis statement or controlling principle; if it is not

explicitly stated, express it in your own words.

3. Look for the major divisions and label each with a Roman numeral.

4. Divide each major division into subdivisions.

5. Check whether the divisions and subdivisions relate to the thesis statement or the

purpose of the writer.

6. Compare your outline with the original material to check against any

misinterpretation or distortion of the content and structure of the original.

Remember that there are two kinds of outline: the topic outline, in which the

entries are given in words or phrases, and the sentence outline, in which the

entries are complete sentences.

Stages of Development

I. Oral Literature

A. ____________________

B. ____________________

1. ______________

2. ______________

C. ____________________

D. ____________________

1. Ramayana

2. Mahabharata

II. Beginnings of Sanskrit Grammar

III. Modern Indian Literature

Characteristics

I. Sacred/ holy texts

As a grade 8 student, you will often come across a material that is

difficult to remember. Thus there is a need for you to outline your reading

material. Reducing complex material to its outline form will make you

understand the material fast and easy.

How do you prepare a reading outline?

Now, try to convert the selection you have just read to an outline.

You can use three-step word, phrasal, or sentence outlines to organize

your ideas.

Activity 6: OUTLINING

Directions: Fill out this outline of the development of Indian

literature and give the characteristics of each period.

Page 88: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

The world is getting smaller but not in size. We know what is

happening in other Afro-Asian countries by reading newspapers. This

will also help us understand their traditions and values.

Newspapers give us information about what is happening in a

country or in the world every day. It is said that people need news, as

much as they need eyes in order to see what’s going on.

It is important for you, as students, to develop skills in getting

information from newspapers.

Most newspapers have several sections: News page, sports page,

classified advertisements, comics/cartoons, editorial, columns, and

Activity 7: GETTING INFORMATION FROM NEWSPAPERS

1. Form a group of five members and examine the parts of a

newspaper. Note its different sections.

2. Collect items belonging to every section. Display them around the

3. Note how many sections talk about the following:

a. local news

b. national news

c. international news

1. Where do international news items come from?

2. What do international news items talk about?

3. Are these news items mostly good or bad?

4. What are the local news items mostly about?

So, have you gathered data about other Afro-Asian countries from

the newspapers?

Let me give you another input about India. This time, you will watch

a video clip of the Kids Animation Epics containing the full episode of

the Ramayana.

Activity 8: WATCH AND WORK

Directions: Watch the video clip and observe keenly. Be ready to

do the following group tasks below. You will be graded based on

your preparation, visual aids, speaking and audience contact,

overall understanding of the topic and teaching value for other

http://www.bollydb.in/playvideo-k3lPGfvF2Bk.html

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RUBRIC FOR DIFFERENTIATED TASK

Group no. ___________ Task: ________________________________

1 2 3 4 Total

Preparation

presentation.

preparation

beyond level

Visual Aids

visual aids.

interesting

Speaking and

Did not look

at audience

and was not

loud enough

attention of

the audience

expressively.

Understanding

of the Topic

Students did

understanding

of the topic.

most of the

the topic and

found extra

information.

value for other

Did not help

other students

learn about

Helped other

presentation

Group 1: Arrange the given events to get the summary of the Ramayana

Group 2: Accomplish the Actitude Analysis

Group 3: Identify the conflict in The Ramayana

Group 4: Identify the theme of Ramayana

Group 5: Write a script of Ramayana and read it dramatically

Differentiated Learning Rubric by Maxine – www.atozteacherstuff.com

http://atozteacherstuff.com/pdf.htm?rubric_differentiated.pdf

Page 90: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Group 1: SEQUENCING OF EVENTS

Arrange the following events in the order of the diagram. Write numbers 1 to

10. Then, retell the story in your own words. Put your answer on the space

provided for you.

____ King Dasharatha, Rama's father, decides it is time to give his throne to

his eldest son Rama.Everyone seems pleased. However Rama's stepmother,

the king's second wife, is not pleased. She wants her son, Bharata, to rule.

Because of an oath Dasharatha had made to her years before, she gets the king

to agree to banish Rama for fourteen years and to crown Bharata, even though

the king, on bended knees, begs her not to demand such things.

____ Rama, always obedient, is as content to go into banishment in the forest

as to be crowned king. Sita convinces Rama that she belongs to his side and his

brother Lakshman also begs to accompany them. Rama, Sita and Lakshman set

out for the forest.

____ Dasharatha, King of Ayodhya, has three wives and four sons. Rama is the

eldest. Bharata is the second and the other two are twins, Lakshman and

Shatrughna.

____ In a neighboring city the ruler's daughter is named Sita. When it is time for

Sita to choose her bridegroom, at a ceremony called a swayamvara, Sita

indicates she has chosen Rama as her husband by putting a garland around his

neck. The disappointed suitors watch.

____ Ravana devises a plan to abduct Sita. He sends a magical golden deer

which Sita desires. Rama and Lakshman go off to hunt the deer, first drawing a

protective circle around Sita and warning her she will be safe as long as she

does not step outside the circle. As they go off, Ravana (who can change his

shape) appears as a holy man begging alms. The moment Sita steps outside

the circle to give him food, Ravana grabs her and carries her off to his kingdom

___ Bharata, whose mother's evil plot has won him the throne, is very upset

when he finds out what has happened. Not for a moment does he consider

breaking the rules of dharma and becoming king in Rama's place. He goes to

Rama's forest retreat and begs Rama to return and rule, but Rama refuses.

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___ Rama is broken-hearted when he returns to the empty hut and cannot find

Sita. A band of monkeys offers to help him find Sita. Ravana has carried Sita to

his palace in Lanka, but he cannot force her to be his wife so he puts her in a

grove and alternately sweet-talks her and threatens her in an attempt to get her

to agree to marry him. Sita will not even look at him but thinks only of her

beloved Rama. Hanuman, the general of the monkey band can fly since his

father is the wind, and Hanuman flies to Lanka and, finding Sita in the grove,

comforts her and tells her Rama will soon come and save her.

___ Years pass and Rama, Sita and Lakshman are very happy in the forest.

One day a rakshasa princess tries to seduce Rama, and Lakshmana wounds

her and drives her away. She returns to her brother Ravana, the ten-headed

ruler of Lanka, and tells her brother (who has a weakness for beautiful women)

about lovely Sita.

____ Rama frees Sita. After Sita proves her purity, they return to Ayodhya and

Rama becomes king. His rule, Ram-rajya, is an ideal time when everyone does

his or her dharma and "fathers never have to light the funeral pyres for their

___ Ravana's men capture Hanuman, and Ravana orders them to wrap

Hanuman's tail in cloth and to set it on fire. With his tail burning, Hanuman hops

from house-top to house-top, setting Lanka afire. He then flies back to Rama to

tell him where Sita is. Rama, Lakshman and the monkey army build a causeway

from the tip of India to Lanka and cross over to Lanka. A mighty battle ensues.

Rama kills several of Ravana's brothers and then Rama confronts ten-headed

Ravana. Rama finally kills Ravana.

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Group 2: Analyze the Actitude (Action/Attitude)

Fill out the Actitude Analysis below and discuss your analysis in front of the

class. Other groups are free to agree/ disagree on the answers of the group

reporting in front of the class.

Process for Actitude (Action/Attitude) Analysis

First enumerate the attitudes/values of the characters revealed in the video.

Then write the corresponding actions/ practices that will serve as your

Analyze everything and come up with the summary of your analysis.

Attitudes/Values Action/Practices

Actitude Analysis of...

Group 3: Validate the Conflict

Identify the conflict in the story “Ramayana”

Do this through a graphic organizer, how the conflict shaped the course of the

story and how it was resolved.

Resolution How it shaped

the flow of the

character deal

Page 93: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Group 4: Examine the Theme

Identify the theme of “Ramayana”

Process the activity by answering the following questions.

1. What is the theme of the play?

2. What ideas lead you to identifying the theme?

3. How is the theme of Ramayana similar or different from the other themes of

dramas/movies you have watched on television?

4. What does this reveal of about Afro-Asian plays?

5. How does the theme affect you as a person?

6. Are you able to relate an experience, a thought or a personal feeling with the

story? Explain your answer.

Group 5: Make your Own Script

In your own words, create a script of Ramayana.

Check the script you will make with that on video. Go to the following link for

the video: http://www.bollydb.in/playvideo-k3lPGfvF2Bk.html

Read dramatically your written script.

Recall the lines in the video clip, “The Ramayana.” Think about how

Sita felt when she said to Rama these lines:

"As shadow to substance, so wife to husband, is not the wife's

dharma to be at her husband's side? Let me walk ahead of you so that I

may smooth the path for your feet,"

If you were acting out a dialog, how would you convey Sita’s feeling

as she begged to accompany Rama to his retreat?

When people talk, can you guess how they feel and what their

attitudes are?

You can if you listen well to their pitch, stress, and intonation.

Pitch refers to the highness or lowness of a sound; stress or accent

refers to the greater or lesser force given to certain syllables or words;

intonation refers to the way the voice goes either up or down at the end

of the sentence.

A person who is in great fear may utter stressed sounds in a high pitch as when

Fire! Look!

A person who is embarrassed may stutter in a low pitch as when one says:

I’m s-s-s-sorry.

P-p-p-please f-f-forgive me.

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One who is doubtful may use a rising intonation for a statement as in:

Yoni holds office in this building?

One who scorns or wants to emphasize a place, person, or thing stresses a

demonstrative adjective before that noun, as in;

Yoni holds office in this building.

One who has self-confidence and poise may use a normal pitch, stress and

intonation pattern as in;

The battle began.

How can you identify a person’s attitudes and feelings?

You can identify attitudes and feelings by listening to the way a person

Activity 9: ORAL PRACTICE

Get a partner and take turns in reading and listening to the following

dialogs from The Ramayana. Identify the feeling expressed by your

partner through his/her intonation, stress, and pitch.

1. "I gladly obey father's command." - Rama

2. "The eldest must rule, please come back and claim your rightful place as king." -

3. “You must stand vigilant, guarding a sacrifice from demons for six days and

seven nights.” – Visvamitra

4. “My husband, remember when I saved your life in the battlefield so many years

ago? And do you remember that you granted me two boons at that time. The

time has come for you to fulfill your promise!” – Kaikeyi

5. “Oh woman, have you no heart? Please ask anything but not that.” – King

Did you make clear and interesting explanations about your answers

in the last activity? You will encounter more exercises about this topic in

the succeeding lessons.

Aside from using the proper stress and intonation, you can also

improve your skill in expressing your ideas clearly and interestingly by

using a variety of sentence structures.

You learned in your previous lessons that sentences could be

classified into: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. If

you are not sure of the characteristics of each of these, here are key

points to refresh your memory before going further.

Page 95: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Kinds of Sentences According to

Structure A. Simple sentence – is a sentence with one independent clause and no

subordinate clause. It may contain two or more verbs or two or more

subjects connected by subordinators, but this does not alter the fact

that only one thought is expressed.

King Dasharata had four sons.

Lakshman and Shatrughna were twins.

King Dasharatha decides it is time to give his throne to Rama and retire to the

Sita and Lakshman begged and convinced Rama to let them set out for the

B. Compound Sentence – is a sentence composed of two or more independent

clauses but no subordinate clauses. The clauses of a compound sentence may

be separated by semi-colons or commas followed by coordinating conjunctions;

or semi-colons followed by sentence connectors. You may separate the two main

clauses of a compound sentence into two simple sentences.

The most common coordinators are:

and or nor so but for yet

The most common sentence connectors are:

therefore moreover indeed while also

in fact nevertheless however thus consequently

Bharata begs Rama to return to the palace but the latter refuses.

Rama goes off to hunt the deer, while Lakshman draw a protective circle around

C. Complex Sentence - is a sentence containing one independent clause and at

least one subordinate clause.

When Sita steps outside the circle, Ravana grabs her and carries her off to his

kingdom in Lanka.

Ravana’s men capture Hanuman before he could finish conversing with Sita.

D. Compound-Complex Sentence – contains two or more independent clauses

and at least one subordinate clause.

The people who were in the kingdom are pleased with Rama, but Kaikeyi

plotted an evil plan against him.

Kaikeyi requested that her son be made the regent king and Rama should be

exiled in the forest.

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_________ 1. After the supplies are delivered, Lucia and Shine will decorate the

Audio-Visual Room.

________ 2. We know that the English department has worked very hard, and we

appreciate their efforts.

________ 3. If we start early, we can finish before noon.

________ 4. Arrange the props creatively and artistically.

________ 5. Somebody must stand at the door and collect the tickets.

________ 6. This presentation should be a success, because we have already sold

several hundred tickets.

________ 7. We have elected a king and a queen for the dance, and they will lead

the Grand March.

________ 8. The clean-up committee will report tomorrow at noon.

________ 9. Tess moves the table at the center.

________ 10. Javy does the arrangements for the program.

Persian literature refers to the body of writings in Modern Persian, the

form of the Persian language that emerged in the 19th century, especially

in north-eastern Iran. The first writings in Modern Persian were in verse. As prose

translation from Arabic were made, improvements based on Arab literary

Activity 10: SENTENCE STRUCTURE TEST

Read and analyze each sentence and write on the space before the

number whether the sentence is simple, compound, complex, or

compound-complex. Be prepared to explain your answer.

Activity 11: WRITE A REFLECTION

Write a summary of the insights you have gained about the two

characters in “The Ramayana”. Use a mixture of simple, compound

and complex sentences to make your summary interesting.

1. Characterize Rama as a husband and Sita as a wife.

2. How did Sita show her love and devotion to her husband? How about Rama to his

3. What conclusion can you make about the Indian women and men of their time?

4. Do you see any similarities between Indian men and Filipino men? Or Indian

women and our Filipino women? In what way are they similar?

Have you gathered enough information about India? Do you now

understand why Indians are said to be a remarkable people?

Now, we will talk about another country, Persia. Let’s try to know

about the Persians through their literature. One of the best Persian

prose selections is the “Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam”.

Background on Persian Literature

Page 97: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

conventions and the use of literary devices were introduced.

The “Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam”, which scattered philosophical quatrains of rare

music and charm, was written in answer to the many questions about life. What

makes it outstanding is the fact that these verses were written, not by a man of

letters, but by a famous mathematician and astronomer who lived in Persia in the

eleventh century for the readers of the western world.

Let’s try to find out the general mood or tone of the poem. Find the lines that

describe it. But before you do it, answer this vocabulary test.

For the Sun, who scattered into flight

The Stars before him from the Field of Night,

Drives Night along with them from Heav'n and strikes

The Sultán's Turret with a Shaft of Light.

And, as the Cock crew, those who stood before

Come, fill the Cup, and in the Fire of Spring

The Winter Garment of Repentance fling:

The Bird of Time has but a little way

To fly -- and Lo! the Bird is on the Wing.

The Worldly Hope men set their Hearts upon

Turns Ashes -- or it prospers; and anon,

Like Snow upon the Desert's dusty Face

Lighting a little Hour or two -- is gone.

Think, in this batter'd Caravanserai

Whose Doorways are alternate Night and Day,

How Sultan after Sultan with his Pomp

Abode his Hour or two and went his way.

Ah, my Beloved, fill the Cup that clears

TO-DAY of past Regrets and future Fears:

To-morrow! Why, To-morrow I may be

Activity 12: BUILDING YOUR VOCABULARY

Match the underlined words in Column A with their definitions in Column B.

____1. The sultan’s turret stands tall. a. a large inn

____2. Tomorrow will be here anon b. soon

____3. Her collection of vintage paints c. rundown

____4. Travellers rest in caravanserai d. an earlier model

____5. abandoned battered building e. projecting tower

f. disappeared

The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam

Translated by Edward Fitzgerald

Page 98: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Myself with Yesterday's Sev'n thousand Years.

For some we loved, the loveliest and the best

That from his Vintage rolling Time has prest,

Have drunk their Cup a Round or two before,

And one by one crept silently to rest

Ah, make the most of what we yet may spend,

Before we too into the Dust descend;

Dust into Dust, and under Dust, to lie,

Sans Wine, sans Song, sans Singer, and--sans End!

Oh threats of Hell and Hopes of Paradise!

One thing at least is certain--This Life flies:

One thing is certain and the rest is lies;

The Flower that once is blown for ever dies

1. The Bird of Time has but a little way

a. Life is short.

b. Birds die fast.

c. Birds cannot fly for a long time.

2. The Worldly Hope men set their Hearts upon

Turns Ashes -- or it prospers;

a. Men burn their hopes.

b. When men hope, their hurts burn.

c. Men’s desires either fail or suceed.

3. How Sultan after Sultan with his Pomp

a. No matter how rich a person is, time comes when he becomes poor.

b. Even rich men just live the life meant for them, then they die.

c. A rich man does not stay permanently in a palace.

4. Oh threats of Hell and Hopes of Paradise!

a. Everyone should think about hell and paradise.

b. Life is destined for hell or paradise.

c. Life on earth soon ends.

Let’s find out if you understand the poem through Reading Meaning

into Poetry.

Activity 13: READING MEANING INTO POETRY

Directions: Encircle the letter of the most appropriate meaning of

each of the following passages.

Page 99: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

5. One thing is certain and the rest is lies;

The Flower that once is blown for ever dies.

a. Only one thing is certain in this world; all that live, die.

b. All flowers die after it has bloomed.

c. Once a thing dies, it does not live again.

Activity 14: WHAT’S ON YOUR MIND?

Identify what is the author’s concept of life and death. Answer this

using a concept map. See the sample on the next page.

The steps in doing a concept map

Write the major idea at the center.

Associate ideas using your own words.

Check to make sure the connections are valid and clear.

Share your concept map to your classmates.

Activity 15: WRITING AN EXPERIENCE

Directions: Choose a passage from the poem, “The Rubaiyat of

Omar Khayam”, and write your reflections on it. Example:

The Bird of Time has but a little way, To fly -- and Lo! the Bird is on

As you go through your formal education, you will be expected to

study or do research work. Because of this, you will have to do a lot of

reading and learn how to read fast. One way to do fast reading is through

scanning. To scan is to move the eyes quickly down a page to find facts

or details quickly. Let’s try this one.

Page 100: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

1. What are inseparable in Asia?

__________________________________________________

2. What are regarded as valued “classical” traditions in Asia?

3. What makes it difficult to draw a sharp borderline between and among dance,

ceremonies and rituals?

4. Why is Asia, called a treasury of traditions representing development of theatrical

performances?

Asian Traditional Theatre and Dance

1. The interrelatedness of drama, dance and music

In Asia, drama, dance and music are inseparable. Most of the traditional

forms of Asian performing art combine drama, dance and music into a kind of

whole in which it is difficult to draw a clear borderline between these art forms.

Most of the Asian traditions employ either dance or dance-like, stylized

movements, while movements are frequently interwoven with text. In addition to

this, most of the traditions are characterized by their own specific musical styles

or genres. The acting technique, which employs dance-like body language, is

usually very intricate and it demands many years of arduous training, as western

ballet technique, for example, does. Therefore in Asia it is simply not possible to

classify stage arts as nonverbal “dance” or “spoken theatre”.

2. The Interaction between “Living Theatre” and Puppet Theatre

In Asia, puppet theatre and one of its variations, shadow theatre, are often

regarded as valued “classical” traditions. In Asia there are dozens of important

forms of puppet theatre. One could generalize that shadow theatre usually

represents the early strata of puppetry with a long history and religious or

magical connotations. In shadow theatre the silhouette-like figures are often cut

from leather or other transparent or semi-transparent materials and they are

seen through a cloth screen while manipulated by one or more puppeteers.

The interaction of puppet theatre and “living theatre” is one of the

characteristics of Asian theatrical traditions.

3. Relationship with Religion

In many of the Asian cultures, theatre and dance are still organically related

religions and other belief systems today. This deep intermingling of theatre,

dance and religion makes it difficult to draw a sharp borderline between dance,

ceremonies and rituals, as will be apparent later.

Activity 16: SCANNING FOR SPECIFIC INFORMATION

Directions: Scan the following passage and find the answers to the

following questions. Write your answers on the space provided.

Page 101: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

4. The Preservation of Ancient Forms

In Asia there is an abundance of theatrical traditions with histories of

hundreds, sometimes even thousands, of years in which the performance

traditions with specific acting techniques are also still preserved. This may be

due to the deep interrelationship with religion and rituals. Religious art tends to

be conservative in nature and changes of style are mainly avoided. Thus Asia is

a treasury of traditions representing different stages of the development of

theatrical performances from stone-age rituals to later, complex court

performances and to modern, often western-influenced styles.

Most of these traditions preserve not only a literary heritage, but also an

acting technique, costuming, masks, a make-up system etc. that have retained

much of their original qualities throughout the centuries.

your initial answer to the focus question: As a Filipino, how can you

Answer the Focus Question by giving your Revised Answer in the IRF grid

based on the things learned.

Hello there! Congratulations on making it this far.

Now that you know the important ideas/concepts about

our topic, let’s go deeper by moving on to the next

Your goal in this section is to enrich your

understanding on the topic. You have learned from the

previous activities that the traditions and values of

people have come down to us through oral language,

literature, and in theatre and dance. The Afro-Asian

countries share some common characteristics, but

each one manifests peculiar qualities.

Page 102: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Activity 17: CHECK AND BALANCE

Directions: What have you learned so far? Choose one Informative

or Literary text you took up in the previous lesson. Write four reasons

for choosing it. Plot them on the chart below and answer the

Title of Informative/Literary Text

1. Indian Culture 4. The Ramayana

2. The Prophet by Khalil Gibran 5. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayam

3. Characteristics of Indian Literature 6. Asian Traditional Theater and

Informative/

Literary Text

1. How do these informative/literary texts help you understand the

different traditions and values of Afro-Asian countries?

2. In what manner do these informative / literary texts help you

understand your identity as an Asian?

Continue sharing your knowledge and views with others through

this activity. What would you do if you were in these situations?

Page 103: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Do the following group tasks. Decide an action if you were in these

situations:

Group 1: Deciding whether to take your parents order in choosing a course or

Group 2: Letting go of a friend due to some conflicts

Group 3: Staying away from peers due to family pressure

Group 4: Deciding whether to stay and live in the city or province

Group 5: Deciding whether to live independently or to stay with parents after

Activity 18: REAL LIFE SITUATIONS

You are about to read another literary work, this time a play titled,

“Shakuntala”. This play was written by a well known poet Kalidasa.

What do you know about him?

Before you start reading “Shakuntala”, try to unlock some

vocabulary words found in the selection.

Activity 19: VOCABULARY TEST

Directions: Choose the word from the word pool which means the

same as the word or words in parentheses.

heralds curse

hesitate ashram

apparently dynasty

garland blurs

(1) A/An ___________________ (abode, refuge) is the home of the family – the

basic unit of society. It is from the family that individuals come to birth and it is within

the family that they find the first school of the social virtues that are important to build

a society. (2)_______________ (obviously) parents are the first teachers.

Every child is a gift to its brothers, sisters, parents and entire family. They say a

good child is a (3) _____________ (wreath of flowers) that brings honor to the

parents while a black sheep is a (4) _____________ (damnation), but nevertheless,

the child is loved and cared for.

In most cases the family (5) ____________ (announces) progress and strives to

contribute to national development. Family members don’t (6) ___________ (waver)

to pursue fields of endeavor that would bring them honor and glory. Take for

example the political (7) ___________ (ancestry lines of hereditary rulers) we have

in the country.

Page 104: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Shakuntala by Kalidasa (Act IV)

Sharngarava (listening to the song of koïl-birds).

The trees are answering your prayer

In cooing cuckoo-song,

Bidding Shakuntala farewell,

Their sister for so long.

Invisible beings.

May lily-dotted lakes delight your eye;

May shade-trees bid the heat of noonday cease;

May soft winds blow the lotus-pollen nigh;

May all your path be pleasantness and peace.

(All listen in astonishment.)

My child, the fairies of the pious grove bid you farewell. For they love the

household. Pay reverence to the holy ones.

Shakuntala (does so. Aside to PRIYAMVADA).

Priyamvada, I long to see my husband, and yet my feet will hardly move. It is

hard, hard to leave the hermitage.

Priyamvada.

You are not the only one to feel sad at this farewell. See how the whole grove

feels at parting from you.

The grass drops from the feeding doe;

The peahen stops her dance;

Pale, trembling leaves are falling slow,

The tears of clinging plants.

Shakuntala(recalling something).

Father, I must say good-bye to the spring-creeper, my sister among the vines.

I know your love for her. See! Here she is at your right hand.

Shakuntala (approaches the vine and embraces it).

Vine sister, embrace me too with your arms, these branches. I shall be far

away from you after to-day. Father, you must care for her as you did for me.

My child, you found the lover who

Had long been sought by me;

No longer need I watch for you;

I’ll give the vine a lover true,

This handsome mango-tree.

And now start on your journey.

Shakuntala (going to the two friends).

Dear girls, I leave her in your care too.

Read the selection silently. Then, choose the character you prefer

and read its lines aloud.

Page 105: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

The two friends.

But who will care for poor us? (They shed tears.)

Anusuya! Priyamvada! Do not weep. It is you who should cheer

Shakuntala. (All walk about.)

Shakuntala.

Father, there is the pregnant doe, wandering about near the cottage. When she

becomes a happy mother, you must send someone to bring me the good

news. Do not forget.

I shall not forget, my child.

Shakuntala (stumbling).

Oh, oh! Who is it that keeps pulling at my dress, as if to hinder me? (She turns

round to see.)

It is the fawn whose lip, when torn

By kusha-grass, you soothed with oil;

The fawn who gladly nibbled corn

Held in your hand; with loving toil

You have adopted him, and he

Would never leave you willingly.

My dear, why should you follow me when I am going away from home? Your

mother died when you were born and I brought you up. Now I am leaving

you, and Father Kanva will take care of you. Go back, dear! Go back! (She

walks away, weeping.)

Do not weep, my child. Be brave. Look at the path before you.

Be brave, and check the rising tears

That dim your lovely eyes;

Your feet are stumbling on the path

That so uneven lies.

Sharngarava.

Holy Father, the Scripture declares that one should accompany a departing

loved one only to the first water. Pray give us your commands on the bank

of this pond, and then return.

Then let us rest in the shade of this fig-tree. (All do so.) What commands would

it be fitting for me to lay on King Dushyanta? (He reflects.)

My dear, there is not a living thing in the whole hermitage that is not grieving to-

day at saying good-bye to you. Look!

The sheldrake does not heed his mate

Who calls behind the lotus-leaf;

He drops the lily from his bill

And turns on you a glance of grief.

Page 106: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Son Sharngarava, when you present Shakuntala to the king, give him this

message from me.

Remembering my religious worth,

Your own high race, the love poured forth

By her, forgetful of her friends,

Pay her what honour custom lends

To all your wives. And what fate gives

Beyond, will please her relatives.

I will not forget your message, Father.

Kanva (turning to SHAKUNTALA).

My child, I must now give you my counsel. Though I live in the forest, I have

some knowledge of the world.

True wisdom, Father, gives insight into everything.

My child, when you have entered your husband’s home,

Obey your elders; and be very kind

To rivals; never be perversely blind

And angry with your husband, even though he

Should prove less faithful than a man might be;

Be as courteous to servants as you may,

Not puffed with pride in this your happy day:

Thus does a maiden grow into a wife;

But self-willed women are the curse of life.

But what does Gautami say?

This is advice sufficient for a bride. (To SHAKUNTALA.) You will not forget, my

Come, my daughter, embrace me and your friends.

Oh, Father! Must my friends turn back too?

My daughter, they too must someday be given in marriage. Therefore they may

not go to court. Gautami will go with you.

Shakuntala (throwing her arms about her father).

I am torn from my father’s breast like a vine stripped from a sandal-tree on the

Malabar hills. How can I live in another soil? (She weeps.)

My daughter, why distress yourself so?

A noble husband’s honourable wife,

You are to spend a busy, useful life

In the world’s eye; and soon, as eastern skies

Bring forth the sun, from you there shall arise

A child, a blessing and a comfort strong—

You will not miss me, dearest daughter, long.

Page 107: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Shakuntala (falling at his feet).

Farewell, Father.

My daughter, may all that come to you which I desire for you.

Shakuntala (going to her two friends).

Come, girls! Embrace me, both of you together.

The two friends (do so).

Dear, if the good king should perhaps be slow to recognise you, show him the

ring with his own name engraved on it.

Your doubts make my heart beat faster.

Do not be afraid, dear. Love is timid.

Sharngarava (looking about).

Father, the sun is in midheaven. She must hasten.

Shakuntala (embracing KANVA once more).

Father, when shall I see the pious grove again?

My daughter, When you have shared for many years

The king’s thoughts with the earth,

When to a son who knows no fears

You shall have given birth,

When, trusted to the son you love,

Your royal labours cease,

Come with your husband to the grove

And end your days in peace.

My child, the hour of your departure is slipping by. Bid your father turn back.

No, she would never do that. Pray turn back, sir.

Child, you interrupt my duties in the pious grove.

Yes, Father. You will be busy in the grove. You will not miss me. But oh! I

How can you think me so indifferent? (He sighs.)

My lonely sorrow will not go,

For seeds you scattered here

Before the cottage door, will grow;

And I shall see them, dear.

Go. And peace go with you. (Exit SHAKUNTALA, with GAUTAMI,

SHARNGARAVA, and SHARADVATA.)

The two friends(gazing long after her. Mournfully).

Oh, oh! Shakuntala is lost among the trees.

Anusuya! Priyamvada! Your companion is gone. Choke down your grief

and follow me. (They start to go back.)

Page 108: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Father, the grove seems empty without Shakuntala.

So love interprets. (He walks about, sunk in thought.) Ah! I have sent

Shakuntala away, and now I am myself again. For

A girl is held in trust, another’s treasure;

To arms of love my child to-day is given;

And now I feel a calm and sacred pleasure;

I have restored the pledge that came from heaven.

Let’s try to figure out if you understand the selection. Do the

following activities as you go deeper in your search for knowledge.

Activity 20a: CHARACTER MAP

Directions: Do the following tasks below. Use the character map to

answer this activity.

1. Describe Shakuntala as a daughter, as a sister, and as a friend.

2. Describe Kanva as a father.

3. Cite proof/evidence to your answer.

Name of the

Descriptions

Page 109: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Activity 20b: ACTIVE KNOWLEDGE-SHARING

Directions: Participate in the class discussion by answering the

1. How is Kanva similar to most fathers nowadays?

2. What advice did he give his daughter in her relation with her husband, her

husband’s family, and the people around her?

3. As described in the excerpt, what is the concept regarding the role of a woman

4. What Indian traditions and values were mentioned in the story? Relate it to

Filipino traditions and values.

5. Go over the text again and list down common practices that we still observe

Page 110: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Activity 21: CHARACTER’S EMOTIONS

Directions: Pick one line of a character from the story and deliver it

dramatically in front of the class.

ANASUYA: Even people ignorant of wordly affairs would say

that the King had not behaved like a gentleman towards

Shakuntala. (Complaining)

SHAKUNTALA: So I became bride again. I will never have

friends like you. (She drops tears)

PRIYAMVADA: Anasuya, hurry. We are arranging for the

departure of Shakuntala. (With Joy)

KANVA: How grief weakens me when I see all those grains

you scattered in offering of the cottage door sprouting! Go

now! God be with you on your journey. (Sighing with grief)

Activity 22: READER’S CIRCLE

Directions: Group into five and write your interpretation of the

following excerpts in depth using the Readers Circle Strategy. Read,

discuss, and respond to the dialog assigned to your group. Choose a

representative to report what you have discussed.

Process for the Readers Circle Strategy

Be sure to work with your members

Assign roles to your members (clarifier, summariser, timekeeper etc.)

Analyse the assigned text/lines to your group

Prepare for your roles in the circle

Assign your facilitator to a circle

Fill up the self and peer assessment checklist after your group’s discussion.

Page 111: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Group 1. Priyamvada:

You are not the only one to feel sad at this farewell.

See how the whole grove feels at parting from you.

Group 2. Kanva:

Do not weep, my child. Be brave.

Look at the path before you.

Group 3. Kanva:

Group 4. Shakuntala:

I am torn from my father’s breast like a vine stripped

From a sandal-tree on the Malabar hills.

How can I live in another soil? (She weeps.)

Group 5. Kanva:

So love interprets. (He walks about, sunk in thought.)

Ah! I have sent Shakuntala away, and now I am myself again.

For a girl is held in trust, another’s treasure;

Page 112: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Yes No Sometimes Evidence

Everyone participates and

shares in the discussion

process. Communication is

interactive.

The group is supportive of

their individual members.

Group climate promotes

friendliness.

Group members often ask

questions for clarification or

elaboration.

The group discussion stays

on topic or on directly related

The group is energetic and

enthusiastic.

Self and Peer Assessment Sheet

Activity 23: SKETCH TO STRETCH

Directions: Sketch the topic assigned to your group in order to

“stretch” or broaden and deepen your imagination, ideas or

Group1: Draw a comics strips narrating the story

Group2: Draw an illustration of the characters

mentioned in the selection.

Group 3: Reveal the theme of the story through a

Group 4: Have a visual presentation of the setting

of the story.

Group 5: Illustrate the traditions and values

revealed in the selection.

Page 113: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Activity 24: THINK PAIR

Directions: Answer the following questions with a help of a partner.

Write your answers on the space provided.

1. What new realizations do you have about the traditions of Afro-Asian?

2. What similarities do you find between your values as a Filipino and the values of

other Afro-Asian countries discussed in lessons 1 to 3? How did you feel about

3. Do you see the significance of studying the traditions and values of other Afro-

Asian countries? Explain your answer.

At last, you are now ready to give your final answer to the focus

question “How can you better understand your identity as an

Asian?” Write your Final answer in the IRF grid below.

Page 114: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

In this final phase of the lesson, your goal is to apply your

learning to real life situations. You will be given a practical

task which will demonstrate your understanding of the lesson.

Right from the start of Lesson 1 you have been gathering

facts and opinions about the traditions and values of people

from selected Afro-Asian countries. You have also discovered

that the literature of these countries is a great tool in

understanding their beliefs and customs.

Furthermore, the previous lessons taught you how to write

an informative paragraph that leads you to have your own informative article. Also,

you were given a chance to write your own brochure.

This time, your target is to make a write-up promoting the informative and

creative exhibit you will put up. This exhibit should showcase the traditions and

values of selected Afro-Asian countries.

As part of your preparation for your exhibit, you need to write an event proposal

for your exhibit. Please take note of the following instructions on how you will do

Instructions:

1. Write an introduction. Indicate the purpose of the event proposal.

Mention prior contact with the recipient or how you learned about the

project. Say something encouraging about your company or the

project and give an overview of the proposal's contents.

2. Discuss the background. State the problem or opportunity that has

brought about this event proposal.

3. Briefly state what it is you are proposing to do.

4. Discuss the benefits or advantages of doing the project.

5. Discuss how you will go about the event and what concepts or theory

is involved.

6. Discuss or describe what the finished product will look like and how

will it work.

7. Make a statement of feasibility or possible outcome of the proposal.

Describe the full benefits of the event.

8. Provide a schedule, timeline or list of project "milestones" for the

project. If you cannot cite specific dates for completion of key project

phases, estimate in number of days, weeks or months.

How to Write an Event Proposal

Source: How to Write an Event Proposal | eHow.com

http://www.ehow.com/how_6115264_write-event-proposal.html#ixzz2ByM9uEwM

Activity 25: TAKE MY PROPOSAL

Directions: You have learned how to write an event proposal from

the guidelines above. You will try your knowledge of the steps by

doing the given exercise. Consider the scenario below:

Page 115: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

1. Title Information:

The title of the document should be centered in bold letters at the top of the

page and should say something such as "LETTER OF INTENT."

On a line underneath, type what type of intent the letter is for, i.e., "Park

Enhancement Grant Program."

On the left-hand side of the page, begin with the date. It's best to write the

date out. For example, write "August 21, 2012", instead of using, "09/21/12",

which tends to look less professional.

2. Address Information:

The address and title information should be typed professionally and

correctly. If you are addressing the letter to John Dela Cruz, you would

address it to, "Mr. John Dela Cruz". If the letter is sent in care of a second

person, you would add that underneath in the following format:

Mr. John Dela Cruz

c/o Cherry De Vera

The name of the addressee's organization or company goes on the line below

with the address following. For example:

Department of Parks and Recreation

Pearl Drive, Ortigas, Pasig City

Then type in the regarding line, i.e., "RE: PEG Letter of Intent." And type in

the "dear" line. For example, "Dear Mr. Dela Cruz".

3. Letter Body

Keep paragraphs short and concise. Begin the letter with something such as,

"I submit this letter of intent to notify the Department of Parks and

Recreation of [enter name of organization here]'s intent to submit a proposal

for..." Add the remaining information and end the first paragraph here.

In the second paragraph, talk about your organization's intent and give a brief

description of the improvement or whatever the intent is. If you are speaking

of a specific park or organization, use proper names.

In the final paragraph, let the reader know who your representative will be.

For example, "[Name] will be our main point of contact for the purposes of

the application process and can be reached at:"

use a bulleted list for the contact information. For example:

Mailing Address

You are the event organizer in your company. You have been asked to run a

concert for a fund raising project of a certain foundation. Your target is to invite

sponsors who will support your project. As part of your preparation for the event,

your task is to write an event proposal. This letter will be distributed to all the

prospect sponsors.

This is how you will write your event proposal:

Page 116: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Phone Number

E-mail Address

In the final paragraph, thank the reader for the opportunity to participate in

whatever program to which you are applying. Complete and sign the letter

as follows:

The following criteria will be used in evaluating your event proposal:

1. Proper Business Letter Format (5 points)

Heading, inside address, salutation, body, closing, etc. are present.

2. Focused Body Paragraphs (5 points)

Distinct claims in each body paragraph explaining your project’s origins

and goals are evident.

3. Specific Details (5 points)

Specific details in each body paragraph are provided. It doesn’t just

summarize and generalize.

4. Polished (5 points)

The errors are checked thoroughly. There is a signature.

5. Passion (5 points)

Demonstrated a choice of project that reflects your passions and future

goals. Showed how your choices relate to your dreams and previous

things you’ve done.

1. Were you successful in writing your event proposal? Why do you say

2. What difficulty did you encounter in writing your letter of proposal?

What did you do about it?

3. Do you think your output meets the criteria for assessing an event

proposal? Why?

Page 117: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Putting up an exhibition, whether it is a large event or a small activity,

can be stressful thing to organize and run. Here are some of the important aspects to

consider in putting up an informative and creative exhibit:

1. Find the right equipment to put up a good display and promoting the exhibit. Many

people will have been to exhibitions for various reasons and will have noticed

that in these events the key to a successful exhibition is promotion and

communication.

2. Plan carefully where you will place each unit, making sure that the people are able

to see and understand what is being displayed (products, leaflets, brochures,

booklets, prototypes, samples, pictures etc.).

3. Choose a theme. It’s not enough to simply have lots of artwork you’d like to

exhibit; in order to tie each piece together, you need to come up with a focus.

4. Advertise the exhibition. Consider doing press releases. Put up posters around

local art schools, universities, trendy areas, cafes, clubs, or even the supermarket

bulletin boards. Get in touch with local newspapers and tell them about the

upcoming exhibition.

5. Entertain with food and drink. If you can afford it, offer beverages such as

champagne, wine or juice, along with finger food or buffet. Or reserve this just for

the opening night or morning to share among those who come to an invitation-

only opening.

The planning process takes time and should not be rushed, that is

why it is a good idea to begin this as early as possible. The plan of

action and schedule will then be drawn up based on the ideas created

by your class and will be used on the day of the event.

How are you going to do this? There are many creative ways on how to

put up an exhibit. Take a look at this.

How to Put Up the Best Exhibition Display

Page 118: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

If it enhances the experience, play music at a low level, especially at the end

when people start leaving.

Your city is hosting the 1st Asia-Africa Cultural Summit.

As the spearhead of the promotional activities for the event, the City

Tourism Council intends to put up an exhibit dubbed as “Taste Asia,

Taste Africa” as a welcome treat to the summit delegates.

As the well acclaimed group of event organizers in the city, you have

been tapped to prepare the exhibit showcasing the different traditions and values

of selected Afro-Asian countries.

Your output will be evaluated based on the quality of information presented,

creativity, relevance to the theme and visual impact.

Source: http://www.articlesbase.com/marketing-articles/how-to-put-up-the-best-

exhibition-display-526499.html

1. Do you find it easy to put up an exhibit?

2. What important things have to be considered in putting up an

informative and creative exhibit?

3. What skills and attitudes do you need to come up with an exhibit?

You are now ready to perform your practical task in this lesson. You

are on your own to figure out which of the skills you learned in the

previous activities you would use to meet the standards in this given

Consider the following scenario.

Activity 26: GRASP YOUR PERFORMANCE

Directions: Read the task below. In your group, discuss and plan on

how you will prepare your exhibit. The rubric for grading is provided

here to remind you on how your work will be graded.

Page 119: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

To showcase the different cultures of selected Afro-Asian countries in an exhibit

Differentiated Roles:

event organizers who will prepare a detailed plan of the event

advertisers/entrepreneurs who will design flyers/brochures for the event

including the agro-industrial products of Afro-Asian countries

* artists who (1) will dress up like mannequins dressed in traditional Afro-Asian

costumes and will move and talk at the drop of a coin (fund-raising) and (2)

prepare slide/video presentation on the traditional music and dance of Afro-

Asian countries

chefs who will feature the best Afro-Asian cuisines through make-believe/real

cooking demonstration

event hosts who will write script for the presentation of the exhibits in

coordination with the events’ organizers

*The target audience is foreign and local tourists.

The City Tourism Council will launch the “Taste Asia, Taste Africa: A Cultural

Awareness Program” as part of its information campaign for the “One ASEAN”

advocacy. Your group is tasked to present an exhibit of Afro-Asian cuisine, traditional

music and fashion, and agro-industrial products.

You need to put up an informative and creative exhibit showcasing the different

traditions and values of selected Afro-Asian countries.

You need to show foreign and local tourists the distinctive characteristics of the

selected Afro-Asian countries.

Page 120: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

CRITERIA Outstanding

Satisfactory

Organization/

Collaboration

All members

contribute in

the completion

of the assigned

Most of the

assigned task.

Information

Presentation of

information is

in-depth and

comprehensive

and strongly

adheres to the

Presentation

information

about Afro-

and adheres

to the theme

of information

countries but

there are 1 to

2 factual errors

inadequately

Exhibit makes

excellent use of

effects, style,

and artistry to

enhance the

of effects,

artistry to

use of effects

and style to

exhibit but

occasionally

distract the

effects and

the exhibit

Presentation is

well rehearsed

with smooth

delivery that

holds audience

is rehearsed

with fairly

Delivery is not

smooth but is

interest of the

audience most

Delivery is

attention is

often lost.

Rubric of the “Taste Asia, Taste Africa Exhibit

Page 121: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Online Sources

Afro-Asian Traditional Dances. Retrieved November 15, 2012

https://www.google.com.ph/search?hl=fil&tbo=d&biw=1366&bih=643&tbm=isch&sa=

1&q=traditional+dances+of+AFRO-ASIAN&oq=traditional+dances+of+AFRO-

ASIAN&gs_l=img.12...0.0.1.4927.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0...0.0...1c.ItzBPBMDhOQ&b

av=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&emsg=NCSR&noj=1&ei=dTX9UOO8BY6QiQfBhIGQ

The Prophet by Kahlil Gibran. On Work. Retrieved November 21, 2012

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jrcole/gibran/prophet/prophet.htm

1. How’s your experience in doing your final task?

2. Did you find the skills you have learned previously helpful in doing this

3. What important insights did you gain from doing this practical task?

4. How did the task help you see the real world use of the topic?

Bermudez, Virginia, et.al. English Expressways II. Quezon City: SD Publications,

Delos Reyes, Rosemarie R. et.al. English_Com. II. Quezon City: Bookman Inc.

Fernando, Jovita et.al. College Freshman English. Caloocan City: Philippine

Graphic Arts, Inc. 1973.

Lapid, Milagros G. and Josephine B. Serrano. English Comunication Arts and

Skills Through Afro-Asian Literature (6th Edition). Phoenix Publishing House,

Ponce de leon- Ladena, Helen, et.al . Dimensions in Learning English II. Quezon

City: Rex Publishing Company Inc. 2002.

Rodriguez, Lorna C. Worktext in English I. Lipa City: United Eferza Academic

Publications, Co. 2010.

Teaching Guide English II. 2010 SEC: Bureau of Secondary Education,

Department of Education. 2011.

Torres, Myrna M. English for Secondary Schools (Revised Edition). FNB

Educational Inc. 1997.

Page 122: Grade 8 (English Module) - Voyages in Communication

Differentiated Learning Rubric. Retrieved December 5, 2012 from Maxine website:

Ramayana: Summary. Retrieved December 7, 2012

http://www.mythome.org/RamaSummary.html

English - Mythology Stories - Animated Story For Kids. Retrieved November 10,

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3lPGfvF2Bk

Asian Traditional Theatre and Dance. Retrieved December 3, 2012.

http://www.xip.fi/atd/introduction/introduction.html

Philippine Dances. Retrieved December 3, 2012.

http://www.google.com.ph/search?q=traditional+dances+of+filipino&hl=fil&biw=1366

&bih=643&prmd=imvns&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=CKKKUNeZDdHirAe

umIHYBw&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ

Shakuntala by Kalidasa (Act IV). Retrieved December 6, 2012.

http://oll.libertyfund.org/?option=com_staticxt&staticfile=show.php%3Ftitle=1261&ch

apter=77399&layout=html&Itemid=27

Writing an Event Proposal. Retrieved December 6,2012.

Letter of Intent. Retrieved December 7, 2012.

http://www.ehow.com/way_5348161_example-letter-intent-

proposal.html#ixzz2BylfJtQv

Sample Exhibit. Retrieved December 6, 2012.

http://www.google.com/search?q=informative+and+creative+exhibit&hl=en&tbo=d&s

ource=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=bEegUMjLKaeCiQfRqoDwDg&sqi=2&ved=0CA

QQ_AUoAA&biw=1366&bih=643#hl=en&tbo=d&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=Afro-

Asian+exhibit&oq=Afro-

Asian+exhibit&gs_l=img.12...472570.473837.0.477434.25.7.0.0.0.1.3207.6311.9

-2.2.0...0.0...1c.1.dqEfnO1v-

34&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&fp=b9f3c05734f0b8b7&bpcl=38093640

&biw=1366&bih=643

How To Put Up The Best Exhibition Display. Retrieved December 7, 2012.

http://www.articlesbase.com/marketing-articles/how-to-put-up-the-best-exhibition-

display-526499.html

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English Language Arts

Voyages in English

Voyages in English (K–8) is an award-winning, research-based supplemental language arts program that empowers students to become dynamic communicators.

voyages in communication english lm 8

Phonics in Action

Phonics in Action (K–2) provides systematic and explicit phonological and phonemic awareness and phonics instruction, which is essential to students’ literacy success.

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Exercises in English

Exercises in English (3–8) is a comprehensive grammar supplement designed to reinforce teaching and provides practice in grammar, usage, and mechanics.

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Reading in Action

Reading in Action (K–8) is a supplemental reading program that integrates with Voyages in English to reinforce grammar and writing concepts while building reading skills.

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Vocabulary in Action

Vocabulary in Action  (4–8) provides students with direct vocabulary instruction and practice to expand vocabulary and improve standardized test performance.

voyages in communication english lm 8

Voyages in English

Voyages in English (K–8) is an award-winning, research-based supplemental language arts program that empowers students to become dynamic communicators.

voyages in communication english lm 8

Phonics in Action

Phonics in Action (K–2) provides systematic and explicit phonological and phonemic awareness and phonics instruction, which is essential to students’ literacy success.

voyages in communication english lm 8

Exercises in English

Exercises in English (3–8) is a comprehensive grammar supplement designed to reinforce teaching and provides practice in grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Coming Soon

voyages in communication english lm 8

Reading in Action

Reading in Action (K–8) is a supplemental reading program that integrates with Voyages in English to reinforce grammar and writing concepts while building reading skills.

voyages in communication english lm 8

Vocabulary in Action

Vocabulary in Action  (4–8) provides students with direct vocabulary instruction and practice to expand vocabulary and improve standardized test performance.

voyages in communication english lm 8

English Skills in Action

English Skills in Action (C–F) is a holistic approach to language learning that integrates listening, speaking, reading, and writing to promote the acquisition of English.

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Voyages in English, K-8 — Loyola Press

School edition.

The latest revision of the time-tested grammar and writing program. Teaches grammar and writing as essential and related skills, presenting concepts in a balanced approach that empowers students to become effective readers, writers, speakers, listeners, and thinkers. Aligned with Common Core State Standards and correlated to the National Council of Teachers of English Standards,  Voyages in English  ensures mastery of skills and improved performance on standardized tests as it cultivates a lifelong passion for writing and grammar. With the Kindergarten level, even very young children can begin to build a solid foundation in language and literacy. In the primary grades, grammar and the mechanics of writing are reinforced to equip students with skills to speak and write with clarity, correctness, and purpose.  Voyages in English  for grades 3-8 prepares students to become literate masters of the written and spoken word. All levels encourage students with varied learning styles. The program is divided into two distinct parts--Part 1: Grammar, and Part 2: Written and Oral Communication--with integration opportunities build in. Three additional writing chapters per grade include genres such as argumentative writing, literary analysis, and poetry to help foster critical thinking skills in young writers. (©2018)

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  3. Voyages in English 2018 Grade 8 Student

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  4. Voyages in English 2018 Grade 8 Teacher Edition

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  6. Expressing and Understanding Emotions in English

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  1. grade 8 (english module)

    Voyages in Communication - (Grade 8 - Learner's Module) TRANSCRIPT Page 1 This instructional material was collaboratively developed and reviewed by educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or

  2. Voyages in English 2018, Student Edition, Grade 8

    A PDF document of the grammar and writing section of the Voyages in English 2018 textbook for grade 8 students. The document covers topics such as grammar, writing, punctuation, capitalization, and more.

  3. Grade 8 English Learner's Material.pdf Complete

    Department of Education Republic of the Philippines Voyages in Communication - Grade 8 English - Learner's Material First Edition, 2013 ISBN: 978-971-9990-68- Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office ...

  4. Grades 3-8 Overview

    Cultivating Effective, Powerful Communicators Voyages in English for Grades 3-8 fully prepares students to become literate masters of the written and spoken word. The components of this program are the result of decades of research and practice by experts in the fields of grammar, writing, and communication.

  5. Voyages in English 2018, Teacher Edition, Grade 8

    Instruct students to label three objects in the classroom, adding a possessive noun, as in Karla's backpack. Direct students to write one possessive noun and the name of an object on each card ...

  6. Voyages in English 2018, Practice Book, Grade 8

    Voyages in English Grade 8. 20. Not long ago, using a cell phone seemed pure folly. 21. The fisherman saw a flash as a trout swam by. Write one sentence that uses the plural forms of each noun ...

  7. Voyages in English

    Home Voyages in English The newest edition of Voyages in English is the latest revision of the beloved, time-tested grammar and writing program. Offering unparalleled content and exceptional teacher support, the program aligns with Common Core State Standards and correlates to the National Council of Teachers of English Standards.

  8. Voyages in English: Student Edition

    $23.25 ISBN: 978--8294-4607-4 Add to Cart Description The digital student edition of Voyages in English helps build the confidence and skill required to communicate purposefully through writing and proper grammar.

  9. Language Arts

    Voyages in English Voyages in English (K-8) is an award-winning, research-based supplemental language arts program that empowers students to become dynamic communicators. Phonics in Action Phonics in Action (K-2) provides systematic and explicit phonological and phonemic awareness and phonics instruction, which is essential to students' literacy success. Exercises in English Exercises in ...

  10. PDF Voyages in English 2018 Grade 8 Correlations to NJ State Standards

    Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., "Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new"). W7-WW; W10-L2; W10- L6; W10-WW; W11-L5.

  11. Voyages in English: Grade 8 Assessment Book

    Get Textbooks on Google Play. Rent and save from the world's largest eBookstore. Read, highlight, and take notes, across web, tablet, and phone.

  12. English 8 Learning Module Quarter 1

    Like an adventurous explorer, you need to be armed with a map to guide you in your quest for knowledge, a compass to direct you to have a better understanding of the different cultures, and a magnifying lens to highlight your significant discoveries.

  13. Grade 8 English teachers guide Q1 Only

    2. 2 Teacher's Notes _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Voyages in Communication Learner's Module - Grade 8 You will be dealing with the following specific targets for Module 1: To guide your students in gathering facts and opinions about the traditions and values of selected Afro-Asian countries. To lead them in discovering that the literature can be the means to understand the traditions and ...

  14. PDF Voyages in English 2018 Grade 8 Correlations to FL State Standards

    Voyages in English 2018 | FL Correlations | 4 LAFS.8.W.1.2e Establish and maintain a formal style. W3-L2; W3-WW LAFS.8.W.1.2.f Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. W2-L1; W3-L5; W5-L1; W8- WW LAFS.8.W.1.3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined

  15. Voyages in English 8: Section 9-10 Grammar Flashcards

    Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like conjunction, coordinating conjunction, Examples of coordinating conjunctions and more.

  16. Objectives: Voyages in Communication

    Objectives: Voyages in Communication - English Learner's Module Grade 8 | PDF | Learning | Curriculum 0 ratings 52 views 3 pages Objectives: Voyages in Communication - English Learner's Module Grade 8 Uploaded by Juan Miguel DLL Copyright: © All Rights Reserved Available Formats Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

  17. Voyages in English 8 Flashcards

    Kolbe Academy Learn with flashcards, games, and more — for free.

  18. Voyages 8, Chapter 7: Prepositions, Conjunctions, Interjections

    A Preposition shows. the relation between its object and another word in the sentence. A Conjunction. is a word that used to connect words, phrases, or clauses. A Coordinate Conjunction. is a conjunction that connects words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank. The most common coordinate conjunctions are. 'and,' 'or,' 'nor,' 'but,' and 'yet.'.

  19. Voyages in English 2018, Assessment Book, Grade 8

    Voyages in English Grade 8. Write the comparative and superlative forms of each adjective. 14. many. 15. humorous. Circle the correct adjective to complete each sentence. 16. The group raised ...

  20. Voyages in English, K-8, School Edition

    Grade 8 Voyages in English Ebook 1 year access. School Edition. LOYO-46074. Not a physical item. Takes a day to process. Details ». $22.00. Buy Voyages in English, K-8, School Edition — Loyola Press — The latest revision of the time-tested grammar and writing program. Teaches grammar and writing as….

  21. Preface: Voyages in Communication Aims at Introducing You To The

    Preface (Final) - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. grade 8 lm

  22. Voyages in English Grade 8 Nouns Flashcards

    noun that follows a preposition such as: in, into, on, to, by, for, from, with, or without

  23. Voyages in English Grammar and Writing Grade 8 Section 2

    demonstrative adj. point out definite people, places or things that are near or far away. interrogative adj. used in asking a question. indefinite adj. refers to all, some or none of a group. descriptive adj. number, color, size, type, or other qualities. subject complement adj.